Sulaymanid Dynasty
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Sulaymanid Dynasty
Sulaymanid dynasty

814-922
map showing the Sulaymanids territory in yellow.
map showing the Sulaymanids territory in yellow.
Capital
Common languagesArabic, Berber languages
Religion
Muslim
GovernmentMonarchy
Historical eraMedieval
o Established
814
o Disestablished
922

The Sulaymanids (Arabic: as-Sulaym?niy?n) were an Arab Muslim dynasty of Algeria, ruling from 814 to 922.[1] Named after the founder Sulyaman I of Tlemcen, the great grandchild of Hasan ibn Ali, the Sulaymanids are brothers with the Idrisids dynasty of Morocco.

Religion

Sulaymanids have been described as a Sunni Muslim dynasty,[2][3] while other academics have described the Idrisids as a Zaydi-Shia Muslim.[4] They were opponents of the Abbasid Caliphate.[5]

History

The history of the Sulaym?nid dynasty is poorly understood[6] and historians have few chronological benchmarks.[7] It begins according to Ibn Khald?n with the flight of Sulaym?n Ibn ?Abd All?h al-K?mil towards the Maghreb after the Battle of Fakhkh in 786, then its takeover of Tlemcen then in the hand of the Zenata, (in the northwest of present-day Algeria).[8] But not all Arab chroniclers agree that this brother of Idr?s I survived the massacre or that he does not owe him the governorate of the city.[7]

It seems better supported that Idr?s II, the son of Idr?s I, conquered around 814 Tlemcen, a city then probably with a strong Christian population, a meeting point of the Berber populations and a meeting place of the markets, by putting on the run his chief Ma?r?wa Mu?ammad Ibn H?azar. He would then have handed the city over to his cousin Mu?ammad, the son of Sulaym?n Ibn ?Abd All?h al-K?mil, who thereby founded the dynasty of Sulaym?nides after his father's name.[9][a] In 828, Mu?ammad Ibn Idr?s II erected the government of Mu?ammad Ibn Sulaym?n as viceroyalty.[7]

According to historian Gilbert Meynier, one of the descendants of Idris I, Mmm?d Ibn S?l?ym?n, creates in the region of Tlemcen, the « sulaymanid kingdom », a state which seems to control only the cities, coexisting with the neighboring tribes which preserve their Kharidjite heterodoxy.[12] Tlemcen becomes a distinguished city, in growing connection with the Arab culture of Al-Andalus, in 931 the Fatimids took the city and put an end to the power of the Sulaymanids who took refuge in Al-Andalus.[12]

The sons of M?h?mm?d Ibn S?laym?n share all of the central Maghreb (present-day Algeria) after the death of their father. The government of Tlemcen was under the responsibility of A?m?d, son of Mmm?d then to Mmm?d son of A?m?d, then to Al-Qasseem son of Mmm?d son of A?m?d. 'Ayss?, son of M?h?mm?d, obtains the town of Archgul (town and island at Tafna, river eight leagues from Tlemcen in Algeria.) and he joins forces with the Fatimids. 'Ayss?'s brother Idriss obtains possession of the Dejrawa. His son Abû'l 'Aych Ibn Ayss? succeeds him. After the death of Abu'l 'Aych Ayss, Al Hasen b. Abou'l 'Aych takes power among the Dejrawas. After that, it's Ibrahim's turn and then to his sons (Yahya, Ibrahim and Idris). Idris receives Archgul, on the other hand, his brother Yahya joins forces with the Umayyads in the time of Abd al-Rahman I. This causes dissatisfaction of the Fatimids in 935. Yahyia will be arrested by General Mansur.

The city of Dejrawa which shelters Al-H?ss?n Ibn Abû'l 'Aych will be besieged by Ibn Abû'l' Afya, representative of the Umayyads in the central Maghreb (current Algeria). The city will be taken by the Umayyads. Then Al-H?ss?n escapes to join his cousin Idris, son of Ibrahim, chief of Archgul. Al-Buri, son of M?ss? Ibn Abû'l 'Afya will take this city.

Ténès (in the current Wilaya of Chlef in Algeria) will be the seat of Ibrahim, son of Mmm?d, then it will be in the hands of his son Mmm?d, of the same name, then to Ibrahim (same name), then to Yahya and Ali. The latter was defeated by the Zirids during the reign of Ziri ibn Menad in 953. Ali then took refuge with the Ma?r?was. Al Kheyr Ibn M?h?mm?d Ibn Khazer of the Ma?r?w? will help Hamza and Yahiya, son of Ali to cross to Spain.

Ahmed son of Sulayman, son of Ibrahim was a chief of (Central Maghreb: Current Algeria). And among the descendants of M?h?mm?d, son of Sulayman, there is Ituwich, son of Hatech, son of Al Hassan, son of Muhammed, son of Sulayman, and Hammad, son of Ali, son of M?h?mm?d, son of Sulayman.

Ibn Khaldun notes that Souk Hamza at Bougie, according to Ibn Hazm, does not bear the name of an Arab alid Idrissides, but of an Arab Sulaymanid. He adds that Jawhar al-Siqilli, General Fatimides, took Hamza's sons to Kairouan in Tunisia.

Sulayman and his brother

According to Ibn Khald?n in his appendix IV, S?d S?l?ym?n Ibn 'Abd Allah al-K?m?l escapes towards the Maghreb during the Abbasids, he arrives at Tiaret after the death of his brother Idris I and he wanted to take power.

But the Berbers resist threats from S?d S?l?ym?n Ibn 'Abd Allah al-K?m?l and the Banu Tamim of the Arab Aghlabid dynasty decree the order to arrest him.

S?d S?l?ym?n Ibn 'Abd Allah al-K?m?l went to Tlemcen and was master of all the Zenet tribes of this locality.

His son M?h?mm?d Ibn S?l?ym?n succeeds and his children share all of (Central Maghreb: present-day Algeria) after the death of their father S?d S?l?ym?n Ibn 'Abd Allah al-K?m?l.

The government of Tlemcen was under the responsibility of (A?m?d), son of (Mmm?d) then to (Mmm?d) son of (A?m?d), then to (Al Qassem) son of (M?h?mm?d) son of (A?m?d). ('Ayssa), son of (M?h?mm?d), obtains Archgul (town and island at Tafna, a river eight leagues from Tlemcen in Algeria) and he allies with the Fatimids. The brother of ('Ayssa), (Idriss) obtains possession of the Djerawa. His son (Abu'l Aych Aysa) succeeds him. After the death of (Abu l 'Aych' Aysa), (Al Hassan Bin Aboû-l 'Aych) seized power from the Dejrawas. After that, it's Ibrahim's turn and then to his sons (Yahya, Ibrahim and Idris).

Idris receives Archgul, on the other hand, his brother Yahya allies with the Ummayyads at the time of 'Abd R?h?n An-N?s?r.

This causes dissatisfaction of the Fatimids in 935. Yy? will be arrested by General M?s?r.[13]

Sulaymanid currency

Monnaie Sulaymanide d'Algérie Ouest.jpg

Coins of the Sulaymanids minted at Souk Ibrahim and Ténès have been found. Until recently the coins of Mmm?d Ibn S?l?ym?n, the founder of the line and his great grandson A?m?d Ibn 'Is? were known only. The signatures struck « M?d?n?t ?br?h?m Ibn Mmm?d », « M?d?n?t 'Is? Ibn Ibr?h?m and M?d?n?t al-Q?ss?m Ibn 'Is? » are all honorary titles of Suq Ibrahim, while Burjayn, a typing of Yahya Ibn Muhammad, could well be the pseudonym of Ténès.

The dynasty

Rulers

  • Sulayman ibn Abd-Allah, known as "Sulayman I of Tlemcen" was the emir of Tlemcen (786 / 7-813).
  • Muhammad Ibn Sulayman, known as "Muhammad I" - Emir of Tlemcen (813-828).
  • Isa ibn Muhammad, known as "Isa I" - emir of Arshkul (since 828).
  • Ahmad ibn Muhammad, known as "Ahmad I" - Emir of Tlemcen (since 828).
  • Muhammad ibn Ahmad, known as "Muhammad II" is the emir of Tlemcen.
  • al-Qasim ibn Muhammad, known as "Al-Qassim I" - emir of Tlemcen (until 931).
  • Idris ibn Muhammad, known as "Idris I of Algeria" - Emir of Jarava (since 828).
  • Abu'l-Ish Aisa, known as "'Issa II" - Emir of Jarava.
  • Al-Hassan ibn Abi'l-Aish, known as "Al-Hassan I of Algeria" - Emir of Jarava (around 935).
  • Ibrahim ibn Idris, known as "Ibrahim I" - Emir of Arshkul.
  • Yahya ibn Ibrahim, known as "Yahya I" - arrested by the Fatimid warlord Mizur in 935.
  • Ibrahim ibn Ibrahim.
  • Idris ibn Ibrahim, known as "Idris II of Algeria" - emir of Arshkul (around 935).
  • Ibrahim ibn Muhammad, known as "Ibrahim II" - Emir of Tenes and Suk-Ibrahim (since 828).
  • Isa ibn Ibrahim, known as "'Issa III" is the emir of Suk Ibrahim.
  • al-Qasim ibn Isa, known as "Al-Qassim II" - émir de Suk-Ibrahim.
  • Ahmad ibn Isa, known as "Ahmad II" - Emir de Suk-Ibrahim.
  • Muhammad ibn Ibrahim, known as "Muhammad III" est l'émir de Tenes.
  • Yahya ibn Muhammad, known as "Yahya II" - Emir of Tenes.

Timeline

Sulyaman I of Tlemcen

See also

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ L'historien Daniel Eustache évoque la possibilité que Sulaym?n puis son fils Mu?ammad soient déjà à Tlemcen, reconnus par les berbères ma?r?wa, lorsqu'Idr?s
    atteint la ville en 814.[7] Cette version, décrite par les chroniqueurs Ibn Idhari et Al-Bakri,[10] est retenue par les historiens Philippe Sénac et Patrice Cressier qui indiquent que Sulaym?n a été gouverneur de Tlemcen entre 786 et 813.[11]

References

  1. ^ Histoire-Islamique 2015.
  2. ^ A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period, (J. Abun-Nasr, 1987), p.50
  3. ^ Al-Bayan Al-Maghreb (Ibn Idhari al-Marrakushi, 13th century), Vol.1, p.118 (Arabic - Dr. Bashar A. Marouf & Mahmoud B. Awad, 2013)
  4. ^ Meis Al-Kaisi, "The Development of Politico-Religious Movements: A General Overview", Arabic Heritage in the Post-Abbasid Period, ed. Imed Nsiri, (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2019), 124.
    Ludwig W. Adamec, The Historical Dictionary of Islam, page 145, "Idrisid Dynasty (788-985). First Shi'ite dynasty in Islamic history, founded by Idris ibn Abdullah....".
    C.E. BosworthThe New Islamic Dynasties, page 25, "The Idrisids were the first dynasty who attempted to introduce the doctrines of Shi'ism, albeit in a very attenuated form, into the Maghrib...".
    Ignác Goldziher and Bernard Lewis, Introduction to Islamic theology and law, Princeton University Press (1981), p. 218
    Mara A. Leichtman, Shi'i Cosmopolitanisms in Africa: Lebanese Migration and Religious Conversion in Senegal, page 216;"Senegalese Shi'a also refer to the spread of Shi'i Islam to Senegal through the Idrisid dynasty and evidence of Shi'i roots in Morocco through 'Alaouis (Hydarah 2008:132-135). Cornell writes that Moulay Idris and his successors, descendants of the Prophet's grandson Hasan, brought with them to Morocco from the Arabian Peninsula "a form of archaic Shi'ism that was similar in many respects to Zaydism" (1998:200)."
  5. ^ Tarikh al-Tabari (Al-Tabari, 9th century) - English translation: The History of al-Tabari vol.26, p.37-38
  6. ^ Lowick 1983, p. 177.
  7. ^ a b c d Eustache 1970, p. 49.
  8. ^ Ibn Khald?n 1854, pp. 569-570.
  9. ^ Garcia-Arenal & Moreno 1995, p. 28.
  10. ^ Marçais 1941, pp. 59-60.
  11. ^ Sénac & Cressier 2012, p. 118.
  12. ^ a b Meynier, Gilbert (2010). "De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (698-1518)". L'Algérie, coeur du Maghreb classique (in French). Paris: La Découverte. p. 28. ISBN 9782707152312.
  13. ^ Ibn Khald?n 1854, p. 570.

Sources

  • Ibn Abi Zar, Rawd al-Qirtas (contains a chronicle of the dynasty).
  • Charles-André Julien, Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord, des origines à 1830, Payot 1994.

External links


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