map showing the Sulaymanids territory in yellow.
|Common languages||Arabic, Berber languages|
The Sulaymanids (Arabic: as-Sulaym?niy?n) were an Arab Muslim dynasty of Algeria, ruling from 814 to 922. Named after the founder Sulyaman I of Tlemcen, the great grandchild of Hasan ibn Ali, the Sulaymanids are brothers with the Idrisids dynasty of Morocco.
The history of the Sulaym?nid dynasty is poorly understood and historians have few chronological benchmarks. It begins according to Ibn Khald?n with the flight of Sulaym?n Ibn ?Abd All?h al-K?mil towards the Maghreb after the Battle of Fakhkh in 786, then its takeover of Tlemcen then in the hand of the Zenata, (in the northwest of present-day Algeria). But not all Arab chroniclers agree that this brother of Idr?s I survived the massacre or that he does not owe him the governorate of the city.
It seems better supported that Idr?s II, the son of Idr?s I, conquered around 814 Tlemcen, a city then probably with a strong Christian population, a meeting point of the Berber populations and a meeting place of the markets, by putting on the run his chief Ma?r?wa Mu?ammad Ibn H?azar. He would then have handed the city over to his cousin Mu?ammad, the son of Sulaym?n Ibn ?Abd All?h al-K?mil, who thereby founded the dynasty of Sulaym?nides after his father's name.[a] In 828, Mu?ammad Ibn Idr?s II erected the government of Mu?ammad Ibn Sulaym?n as viceroyalty.
According to historian Gilbert Meynier, one of the descendants of Idris I, Mmm?d Ibn S?l?ym?n, creates in the region of Tlemcen, the « sulaymanid kingdom », a state which seems to control only the cities, coexisting with the neighboring tribes which preserve their Kharidjite heterodoxy. Tlemcen becomes a distinguished city, in growing connection with the Arab culture of Al-Andalus, in 931 the Fatimids took the city and put an end to the power of the Sulaymanids who took refuge in Al-Andalus.
The sons of M?h?mm?d Ibn S?laym?n share all of the central Maghreb (present-day Algeria) after the death of their father. The government of Tlemcen was under the responsibility of A?m?d, son of Mmm?d then to Mmm?d son of A?m?d, then to Al-Qasseem son of Mmm?d son of A?m?d. 'Ayss?, son of M?h?mm?d, obtains the town of Archgul (town and island at Tafna, river eight leagues from Tlemcen in Algeria.) and he joins forces with the Fatimids. 'Ayss?'s brother Idriss obtains possession of the Dejrawa. His son Abû'l 'Aych Ibn Ayss? succeeds him. After the death of Abu'l 'Aych Ayss, Al Hasen b. Abou'l 'Aych takes power among the Dejrawas. After that, it's Ibrahim's turn and then to his sons (Yahya, Ibrahim and Idris). Idris receives Archgul, on the other hand, his brother Yahya joins forces with the Umayyads in the time of Abd al-Rahman I. This causes dissatisfaction of the Fatimids in 935. Yahyia will be arrested by General Mansur.
The city of Dejrawa which shelters Al-H?ss?n Ibn Abû'l 'Aych will be besieged by Ibn Abû'l' Afya, representative of the Umayyads in the central Maghreb (current Algeria). The city will be taken by the Umayyads. Then Al-H?ss?n escapes to join his cousin Idris, son of Ibrahim, chief of Archgul. Al-Buri, son of M?ss? Ibn Abû'l 'Afya will take this city.
Ténès (in the current Wilaya of Chlef in Algeria) will be the seat of Ibrahim, son of Mmm?d, then it will be in the hands of his son Mmm?d, of the same name, then to Ibrahim (same name), then to Yahya and Ali. The latter was defeated by the Zirids during the reign of Ziri ibn Menad in 953. Ali then took refuge with the Ma?r?was. Al Kheyr Ibn M?h?mm?d Ibn Khazer of the Ma?r?w? will help Hamza and Yahiya, son of Ali to cross to Spain.
Ahmed son of Sulayman, son of Ibrahim was a chief of (Central Maghreb: Current Algeria). And among the descendants of M?h?mm?d, son of Sulayman, there is Ituwich, son of Hatech, son of Al Hassan, son of Muhammed, son of Sulayman, and Hammad, son of Ali, son of M?h?mm?d, son of Sulayman.
Ibn Khaldun notes that Souk Hamza at Bougie, according to Ibn Hazm, does not bear the name of an Arab alid Idrissides, but of an Arab Sulaymanid. He adds that Jawhar al-Siqilli, General Fatimides, took Hamza's sons to Kairouan in Tunisia.
According to Ibn Khald?n in his appendix IV, S?d S?l?ym?n Ibn 'Abd Allah al-K?m?l escapes towards the Maghreb during the Abbasids, he arrives at Tiaret after the death of his brother Idris I and he wanted to take power.
The government of Tlemcen was under the responsibility of (A?m?d), son of (Mmm?d) then to (Mmm?d) son of (A?m?d), then to (Al Qassem) son of (M?h?mm?d) son of (A?m?d). ('Ayssa), son of (M?h?mm?d), obtains Archgul (town and island at Tafna, a river eight leagues from Tlemcen in Algeria) and he allies with the Fatimids. The brother of ('Ayssa), (Idriss) obtains possession of the Djerawa. His son (Abu'l Aych Aysa) succeeds him. After the death of (Abu l 'Aych' Aysa), (Al Hassan Bin Aboû-l 'Aych) seized power from the Dejrawas. After that, it's Ibrahim's turn and then to his sons (Yahya, Ibrahim and Idris).
Idris receives Archgul, on the other hand, his brother Yahya allies with the Ummayyads at the time of 'Abd R?h?n An-N?s?r.
Coins of the Sulaymanids minted at Souk Ibrahim and Ténès have been found. Until recently the coins of Mmm?d Ibn S?l?ym?n, the founder of the line and his great grandson A?m?d Ibn 'Is? were known only. The signatures struck « M?d?n?t ?br?h?m Ibn Mmm?d », « M?d?n?t 'Is? Ibn Ibr?h?m and M?d?n?t al-Q?ss?m Ibn 'Is? » are all honorary titles of Suq Ibrahim, while Burjayn, a typing of Yahya Ibn Muhammad, could well be the pseudonym of Ténès.