Tati Language (Iran)
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Tati Language Iran
Tati
Tâti
? ?
Native toIran
EthnicityTats
Native speakers
(undated figure of 220,000 Takestani)[1]
28,000 Harzani (2000)[2]
Others shifting
Persian alphabet
Language codes
Variously:
tks - Takestani/Khalkhal
xkc - Kho'ini
hrz - Harzandi
rdb - Rudbari
esh - Eshtehardi
tov - Taromi
xkp - Kabatei
Glottologkhoi1250 
rama1272 
taro1267 
rudb1238 
harz1239 
ELP
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The Tati language (Tati: ? ?, Tâti Zobun )[4] is a Northwestern Iranian language which is closely related to the Talysh, Mazandarani and Gilaki languages spoken by the Tat people of Iran. It is for the most part mutually intelligible with Persian. Tats are a subgroup of Northwestern Iranians.

Old Azari

Some sources use the term old Azari/Azeri to refer to the Tati language as it was spoken in the region before the spread of Turkic languages (see Ancient Azari language), and is now only spoken by different rural communities in Iranian Azerbaijan (such as villages in Harzanabad area, villages around Khalkhal and Ardabil), and also in Zanjan and Qazvin provinces.[5][6][7][8]

Tati language structure

In any language, roots and verb affixes constitute the most basic and important components of a language. The root is an element included in all the words of a lexical family and carries the basic meaning of those lexical items. A verb affix is an element added to the root to form a new meaning. In many new Iranian languages, verb affixes have been left almost unnoticed, and it will be possible, by the act of deriving roots, to clear up most of their structural and semantic ambiguities. Unlike the root, verb affixes can be easily identified and described. In many languages, verb affixes act as the base of verb formation and are often derived from a limited number of roots. Tati, Talysh, Mazandarani and Gilaki languages belong to North-western Iranian languages currently spoken along the coast of Caspian Sea. These languages which enjoy many old linguistic elements have not been duly studied from a linguistic perspective.[9][original research?]

In the field of phonetics Tati is similar to the rest of the north-western Iranian languages: it is distinguished by the persistence of Iranian *z, *s, *y-, * v- against the south-western d, h, j-, b-; development /?/ < * j, */t/ against the south-west z, and the preservation of intervocalic and postvocalic *r and even, for a number of dialects, development rhotacism.

In the field of morphology, Tati is less analytical in structure than the south-western Iranian languages. Having lost the ancient foundations of classes and verb, tati preserved case (two case: direct, or subjective, and oblique). It is a gender-neutral language except in some name and verb formations.

Ergative in Tati language

Tati is an ergative language, i.e. "with transitive verbs the subject/agent of the verb is expressed by the direct case in the present tenses, but by the oblique in the past tenses, whereas the direct object/patient in the present tenses is expressed by the oblique, but by the direct in the past".[10]
Khalkhali is one of the Tati dialects spoken in Shahrood and Xorsh-rostam districts of Khalkhal. Khalkhali Tati is distinguished from other dialects producing ergative structures, because of the adherence of verb to semantic object, in number, person and specially in gender. Meanwhile, according to some evidence in this dialect, apart from past transitive verbs, some intransitive verbs are influenced by the ergative structure.[11]

Phonology

Consonants

The phonology is based on the Southern Tati dialects:[12]

The sound /?/ only occurs before a voiced plosive /d/, and is most likely an allophone of /d/. A glottal stop /?/ may only appear after some elongated vowel sounds, and is likely adopted from Persian loanwords. A labialized sound // occurs only before the vowel sound /?/. The following sounds /r, v, q/ may allophonically range to the sounds [?, ?, ?]. In the Takestani dialect, /?/ may have the allophone [?].

The sound [w] does not occur as a phoneme, but it does occur when /u/ is preceding another vowel.

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e ø (?) ?~o
?
Open æ ?

The vowel sound for /e/ is recognized as two sounds [?, e], and allophonically as [?].

In the Chali dialect, the /o/ phoneme is only realized as a diphthong [?u], whereas in Takestani, it is only recognized as ranging from [?~o].[12]

Dialects

Tati has four main dialects:

  1. South of Qazvin province (T?kest?ni, Eshteh?rdi, Ch?li, D?nesf?ni, Esfarvarini, Ebr?him-?b?di, Sagz-?b?di)
  2. Ardabil province (Khalkh?li)
  3. Alborz mountains range (Dam?vandi)
  4. North Khorasan province (Khor?s?ni)

Comparison of various Tati dialects[13]

English Persian T?kest?ni T?ti Sagz?b?di T?ti Ebr?him?b?di T?ti Ardabilaki T?ti Zi?r?ni T?ti Tikhuri T?ti Tat language (Caucasus) Kurdish Kurmanji Kurdish Sorani
Child
Bae
z?rin/b?l?
?/
z?ru
?
z?ru
?
va?a
ey?l
?
va?a
Ayal Z?rok
Mend?l / ba?ka
Rooftop
Po?teb?m/B?l?bun
bon
bun
bön
bom
bum
bum
Sarbun B?n
B?n
Hand
Dast
B?l
b?l
B?l
B?l
B?l
b?l
Dast Dest / lep ?
Dast
Sharp
Tiz
Tij
tij
tij
tij
tij
tij
Tij Tûj
Tij
Sister
X?har
X?ke
?
Xawa?e
xaw?ke
x?xor
xo?r
xo?r
Xuv?r Xû?k / xweng ?
Xû?k
Ablution/Wozu
Wozu/Dastnam?z
dasnem?z
dasta m?z
dasnem?z
dasnem?z
dastnem?z
dastnem?z
Dastim?z Destnimêj
Destniwêj
Housewife
Kadb?nu
keyvuniye/kalontare zeyniye
/?
?eyb?nu
?
Keyw?nu
Keyw?nu
Kalentar
xojirezan
Kebanî
Kaban
Lentil
Adas
marjomake
?
marjewa
marjewa
marju
?
marju
?
marju
?
Marjimak nîsk ?
Nîsk
Calm ?
?r?m/Denj
dinj
?
dinj
?
dinj
?
dinj
?
dinj
?
dinj
?
Dinj aram /
Aram / Bêdeng
Shout
Fary?d
Har?y
?
Har?y/qia
/?
har?y/qeya
/?
har?y/qiyu
/?
Q?lmeq?l/har?y
?/
Mara
Jir?/Fary?d Hewar/qîr
Hawar
English Persian Pahlavi Avestan T?kest?ni T?ti Sagz?b?di T?ti Ebr?him?b?di T?ti Ardabilaki T?ti Zi?r?ni T?ti Tikhuri T?ti Kurmanji Kurdish Kurdish Sorani
Dog
Sag
sege span asbe/miye
/
Asba
asba
Sag
Sage/me
?/?
Sag/Me
?/?
Kûçik / Seg
Seg
Bone ?
Ostex?n
ast/xastak ast esqonj
Xaste
?
Xaste
?
Esdeq?n
Hasta
hasta
estî / hestî ? / ?
Êsk / Hêsk
Lie ?
Doruq
drog/droo droj duru
?
deru
doru
?
duru
?
duru
?
duru
?
Derew / vir
Diro
Needle ?
Suzan
darzik/darzi dereza darzone
darzena
darzena
darzan
darzen
darzen
Derzî
Derzî
Face ?
?ehre
?ihr/?ihrak dim
dim
dim
dim
dim
dim
Dêm ? /
Dem û çaw / Rû
Groom
D?m?d
z?m?t z?m?tar zom?
?
Zumm?
?
zeym?
?
z?m?
?
z?m?
?
z?m?
?
Zava ?
Zawa
House ?
X?ne
M?b?n ke kiye
?ia
kia
X?ne
?
X?neh
?
X?neh
?
Xanî / ?
Xanû / Xanî
Man
Mard
mart mereta mardak
?
miarda
miarda
Mardi
Mardak
Mardak
Mêr ? / ?
Piyaw / Merd
Lamb
Barre
varrak Ware
?
Wara
Wara
vara
vara
vara
Berx ?
Berx
Bride ?
Arus
vazyok vaze Weye
Weya
veya
ayris/eris
?/
ayris/eris
?/
Bûk ?
Bûk
Nose ?
Bini
Pini Pini vinniye
venia
?
venia
?
vini
?
vini
?
vini
?
Poz (nose) /Bîhn (smell) ? / /
Lût / Kepû / Bon (smell)
Wolf
Gorg
Gourg vehraka varg
varg
varg
verg
?
gurg
?
gurg
?
Gur ?
Gurg

Other Tati dialects are Vafsi, Harzandi, Kho'ini, and Kiliti Eshtehardi.

Vafsi Tati

Vafsi is a dialect of Tati language spoken in the Vafs village and surrounding area in the Markazi province of Iran. The dialects of the Tafresh region share many features with the Central Plateau dialects, however their lexical inventory has many items in common with the Talysh subgroup.

Vafsi has six short vowel phonemes, five long vowel phonemes and two nasal vowel phonemes. The consonant inventory is basically the same as in Persian. Nouns are inflected for gender (masculine, feminine), number (singular, plural) and case (direct, oblique).

The oblique case marks the possessor (preceding the head noun), the definite direct object, nouns governed by a preposition, and the subject of transitive verbs in the past tense. Personal pronouns are inflected for number (singular, plural) and case (direct, oblique). A set of enclitic pronouns is used to indicate the agent of transitive verbs in the past tenses.

There are two demonstrative pronouns: one for near deixis, one for remote deixis. The use of the Persian ezafe construction is spreading, however there is also a native possessive construction, consisting of the possessor (unmarked or marked by the oblique case) preceding the head noun.

The verbal inflection is based on two stems: present and past stem. Person and number are indicated personal suffixes attached to the stem. In the transitive past tense the verb consists of the bare past stem and personal concord with the subject is provided by enclitic pronouns following the stem or a constituent preceding the verb. Two modal prefixes are used to convey modal and aspectual information. The past participle is employed in the formation of compound tenses.

Vafsi is a split ergative language: Split ergativity means that a language has in one domain accusative morphosyntax and in another domain ergative morphosyntax. In Vafsi the present tense is structured the accusative way and the past tense is structured the ergative way. Accusative morphosyntax means that in a language subjects of intransitive and transitive verbs are treated the same way and direct objects are treated another way. Ergative morphosyntax means that in a language subjects of intransitive verbs and direct objects are treated one way and subjects of transitive verbs are treated another way.

In the Vafsi past tense subjects of intransitive verbs and direct objects are marked by the direct case whereas subjects of transitive verbs are marked by the oblique case. This feature characterizes the Vafsi past tense as ergative.

The unmarked order of constituents is SOV like in most other Iranian languages.

Harzandi Tati

Harzani is considered an endangered language with a little less than 30,000 speakers in present day.[14] Its speakers principally reside in the rural district of Harzand, particularly in the village known as Galin Qayah/Kohriz. Harzani is also present in the neighboring villages of Babratein and Dash Harzand.[15]

As of now, Harzani has not been formally recognized by the Islamic Republic of Iran, and thus receives no government support.[16]

Like other languages and dialects of the Iranian language family, Harzani follows a subject-object-verb (SOV) word order. It has nine vowels, and shares a consonant inventory with Persian. It further exhibits a split-ergative case system: its present tense is structured to follow nominative-accusative patterning, while its past tense follows ergative-absolutive.

One characteristic that distinguishes Harzani from related Northwestern Iranian languages is its change from an intervocalic /d/ to an /r/.[17] It also has a tendency to lengthen its vowels. For instance, it has the closed vowel /oe/.[]

Nouns and pronouns in Harzani do not reflect grammatical gender, but they do express case. Nouns, in particular, encode two cases: direct and oblique case, the first of which is not rendered morphologically, but the second is by attaching a suffix. Meanwhile, personal pronouns have three cases: direct, oblique, and possessive.

Verbs in Harzani are inflected for present tense and past tense. Information concerning person and number is reflected in suffixes that attach to these two verb stems. Modal and aspectual information is expressed using prefixes.

Kho'ini Tati

It is spoken in the village of Xoin and surrounding areas, about 60 kilometres (37 mi) southwest of Zanjan city in northern Iran. The Xoini verbal system follows the general pattern found in other Tati dialects. However, the dialect has its own special characteristics such as continuous present which is formed by the past stem, a preverb shift, and the use of connective sounds. The dialect is in danger of extinction.

Nouns have two cases: direct and oblique. Contrary to the often case in Persian, adjective is not Post-positive.

The suffixes may be attached to the verb; the agent of the verb in an ergative construction; an adverb; a prepositional or postpositional phrase; and in a compound verb to its nominal Complement.

The same set of endings is used for the present and the subjunctive. The endings of the preterit and the present perfect are basically the enclitic present forms of the verb 'to be' (*ah-, here called base one). For pluperfect and subjunctive perfect the freestanding auxiliary verb 'to be' (*bav-, here called base two) is utilized. There is no ending for singular imperative and it is -ân for plural. For the inflections of "to be" see "Auxiliary inflection" below.

The past and present stems are irregular and shaped by historical developments, e.g.: wuj- / wut- (to say); xara?-/xarat- (to sell); taj-/tat- (to run). However, in many verbs the past stem is built on the present stem by adding -(e)st; e.g.: brem- -> bremest- (to weep).

The imperative is formed by the modal prefix be- if the verb contains no preverb, plus the present stem and without ending in the singular and with -ân in the plural. be- is often changed to bi-, bo- or bu- according to the situation, and appears as b- before a vowel of a verbal stem.

Kiliti Tati

Kiliti is a Tati dialect of Azerbaijan that is closely related to Talysh. It is spoken in the villages around Kilit, located 12 kilometers southwest from the city of Ordubad in a district with the same name of Nakhchivan in Azerbaijan.

Tati and Talysh

Tati and Talysh are Northwestern Iranian languages which are close to each other. Although Talysh and Tati are two languages that have affected each other in various levels, the degree of this effect in different places are not the same. In fact the very closeness of the two dialects has been a major reason for impossibility of drawing clear borderlines between them. It happens that Tati varieties can be seen in the heart of Talysh districts, or Talysh varieties are found in the center of Tati districts. This claim is supported by focusing on linguistic characteristics of Tati and Talysh, the history of the interrelation between the two dialects, geographical parameters of the area, as well as the phonological, morphological, and lexical examples.[18]

Comparison of Talysh and various Tati dialects

English Persian Ast?r?i Talysh T?kest?ni T?ti Sagz?b?di T?ti Ebr?him?b?di T?ti Ardabilaki T?ti Zi?r?ni T?ti Kurmanji Kurdish
Down
p?yin
jina
?
jir
jir?
?
jir?
?
jir
jir/jir?
?/
jêr [zhêr]
Father
pedar
d?d?
?
d?d?
?
dada
dada
d?d?/piyar
/?
dada/piyar
/
bav
Bitter
talx
tel
tal
tal
tal
tal
tal
tel / tal
Girl ?
doxtar
kela
titiye
titia
titia
detari
?
detari
?
dot (daughter)

keç (girl)

Mad
div?ne
tur
tur
tur
tur
tur
tur
tûre
Woman
zan
?en
zeyniye
zania
?
zania
?
zen
zenek
jin [zhen]
White ?
sefid
ispi
isbi
esbi
?
sebi
sivid
?
isbi
spî
Chicken
morq
k?g
karke
?
?arga
?
karga
?
kerg
kerg
mirî?k [merishk]
Ladder
nardeb?n
serd
?
aselte
sorda
sorda
palk?n/palk?na
/
nêrdevan
Face ?
?ehre
dim
dim
dim
dim
dim
dim
dêm

Distribution

See also

References

  1. ^ Takestani at Ethnologue (10th ed., 1984). Note: Data may come from the 9th edition (1978).
  2. ^ Harzani at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  3. ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/azerbaijan-vii
  4. ^ A Grammar of Southern Tati Dialects, Ehsan Yarshater, Median Dialect Studies I. The Hague and Paris, Mouton and Co., 1969.
  5. ^ it is also spoken in some villages like Vafs and Chehreghan in the central areas of Iran like Gholamhossein Mosahab's The Persian Encyclopedia
  6. ^ Paul, Ludwig (1998a). The position of Zazaki among West Iranian languages. In Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference of Iranian Studies, 11-15.09.1995, Cambridge, Nicholas Sims-Williams (ed.), 163-176. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
  7. ^ Andrew Dalby, Dictionary of Languages: the definitive reference to more than 400 languages, Columbia University Press, 2004, pg 496.
  8. ^ "Azari, the Old Iranian Language of Azerbaijan," Encyclopædia Iranica, op. cit., Vol. III/2, 1987 by E. Yarshater. External link: [1]
  9. ^ Verb Roots and Affixes in Tâti, Tâleshi and Gilaki Dialects, Jahandust Sabzalipoor
  10. ^ Iranica entry on Eshteh?rdi, one of Tati dialects
  11. ^ Ergative in T?ti Dialect of Khalkh?l, Jahandust Sabzalipoor
  12. ^ a b Yar-Shater, Ehsan (1969). A grammar of southern Tati dialects. The Hague: Mouton.
  13. ^ http://www.mehremihan.ir/language-and-dialect/2956-tati-ghazvini.html
  14. ^ Harzani at Ethnologue (17th Edition, 2014)]
  15. ^ Karimzadeh, J. 1994: "The Verbal Constructions in Azari (Harzani Dialect)." Master's thesis, Tarbiat Modarres University.
  16. ^ Harzani at Languages of the World (LLOW)
  17. ^ https://archive.org/stream/HeningTati/2011_6_10-theAncientLanguageOfAzerbaijan_djvu.txt
  18. ^ T?leshi Indications in T?ti Districts of Khalkh?l, Jahandust Sabzalipoor

External links


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