Ternate
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Ternate
Ternate
City of Ternate
Kota Ternate
Skyline of Ternate
Skyline of Ternate
Coat of arms of Ternate
Motto(s): 
Maku Gawene
Location within Maluku Islands
Location within Maluku Islands
Ternate is located in Maluku
Ternate
Ternate
Location in Maluku, Halmahera and Indonesia
Ternate is located in Halmahera
Ternate
Ternate
Ternate (Halmahera)
Ternate is located in Indonesia
Ternate
Ternate
Ternate (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 0°47?N 127°22?E / 0.783°N 127.367°E / 0.783; 127.367Coordinates: 0°47?N 127°22?E / 0.783°N 127.367°E / 0.783; 127.367
Country Indonesia
Province North Maluku
Government
 o MayorTauhid Soleman
 o Vice MayorJasri Usman
Area
 o Land162.17 km2 (62.61 sq mi)
 o Water5,547.55 km2 (2,141.92 sq mi)
Population
(2020 Census)
 o Total205,001
 [2]
Time zoneUTC+9 (Indonesia Eastern Time)
Area code(+62) 921
HDIIncrease 0.800 (Very High)
Websiteternatekota.go.id/

Ternate is a city in the Indonesian province of North Maluku and an island in the Maluku Islands. It was de facto provincial capital of North Maluku before Sofifi on the nearby coast of Halmahera became the capital in 2010. It is off the west coast of the much larger island of Halmahera. It is composed of eight islands; Ternate, the biggest and main island of the city, as well as seven smaller islands of Moti, Hiri, Tifure, Mayau, Makka, Mano, and Gurida. In total, the city has land area of 162.17 square kilometers with total population of 205,001 according to 2020 Census and density of 1,264.11 per square kilometer. The biggest and most densely populated city in the province, it is the economic, cultural, and education center of North Maluku as well as hub to neighbouring regions. Historically the capital of powerful Sultanate of Ternate in 15th and 16th centuries, it fought bitter rivalry with Tidore Sultanate over control of spice trade in Moluccas and became main interest of competing European powers.

History

Early history

Ternate's name was mentioned in Nagarakretagama which was written by Mpu Tantular from Majapahit Empire. The kingdom was previously known as Kingdom of Gapi.[3] It is thought that around 1250, there was an exodus of people moving out of Halmahera island because of political conflicts there.[4]:4. The settlement founded by people from Halmahera was first settled close to feet of Gamalama mountain, named Tobona. During this time, the settlement was ruled by a tribal chief with title Momole.[4]:4 This period was marked with several smaller tribal settlements around the Gamalama mountain were founded later on. Other settlements such as Formadiahi, Sampala, and Gamlamo were founded along the coast unlike Tobona village. These settlements also have their own Momole and nominally independent from each other.[4]:4

On 1257, Tobona gathered all Momole from other village to start a meeting, with the result of all Momole from several villages agree to choose Ciko, a chief from Sampala village, as collective ruler of Ternate. Ciko changed his name to Kaicil Mashur Malamo and replaced his title with Kolano, which means "king".[4]:4 The capital of the kingdom was placed in Sampala village, but moved to Formadiahi during the reign of Kaicil Siale (1284-1298).[4]:4 Under Kaicil Ngara Malamo (1304-1317), Ternate expanded its influence and conquered neighbouring islands.[4]:5 Ngara Malamo was succeeded by Patsyarangan Malamo (1317-1322) and later Sidang Arif Malamo (1322-1331). During this time, Ternate started to have trade contact with Chinese and Arab traders, especially those from Malacca and Java. Ternate became major port city and center of spice trade in Moluccas region competing with its rival, Tidore. Some Chinese and Arab traders during this time, eventually creating foundation of Chinese and Arab communities in the city today.[4]:5

On 1322, Arif Malamo initiated Moti Agreement, which was a result of discussion between rulers in Moluccas about trade and standardization of government structures. As the result of this agreement, Moluccas saw relatively peaceful time of over twenty years and trade flourished.[4]:6 However, he was succeeded by Kaicil Tulu Malamo who later revoked the agreement which he saw as limiting his expansionist ambission. Ternate slowly conquered neighbouring islands such as Sula Islands and Seram Island over the course of 1400s.[4]:6

In the middle of expansionist era, Ternate officially became an Islamic Sultanate during reign of Zainal Abidin (1468-1500) and abandoned Kolano title. Zainal Abidin also changed traditional Moluccan government structure into more Islamic one such as foundation of Jolabe, a council made up of Islamic clerics that would advise sultan on religious matters. This structural and title change would be influential and adopted by neighbouring Tidore and Bacan.[4]:7

Colonial era

Gate of the palace of Ternate Sultanate.

Ternate and neighbouring Tidore were the world's major producer of cloves upon which their rulers became among the wealthiest and most powerful sultans in the Indonesian region. Much of their wealth, however, was wasted fighting each other. Up until the Dutch completed the colonization of Maluku in the 19th century, the sultans of Ternate ruled empires that claimed at least nominal influence as far as Ambon, Sulawesi and Papua.[5][6]

The peak of its power came near the end of the sixteenth century, under Sultan Baabullah, when it had influence over most of the eastern part of Sulawesi, the Ambon and Seram area, and parts of Papua. It engaged in fierce competition for control of its periphery with the nearby sultanate of Tidore. According to historian Leonard Andaya, Ternate's "dualistic" rivalry with Tidore was a dominant theme in the early history of the Maluku Islands.[7]

In part as a result of its trade-dependent culture, Ternate was one of the earliest places in the region to which Islam spread, coming from Java in the late 15th century.[8] However, Islamic influence in the area can be traced further back to the late 14th century.[9] Initially, the faith was restricted to Ternate's small ruling family, and spread only slowly to the rest of the population.[8]

Early map of northern Maluku made during the Age of Discovery. North is on the right, with Ternate as the rightmost followed by Tidore, Mare, Moti and Makian islands. The bottom is the Gilolo (Jailolo or Halmahera) Island. The inset on the top is Bacan Island. Willem Blaeu, 1630
Colonial-era painting of Ternate island, c. 1883-1889.

The first Europeans to stay on Ternate were part of the Portuguese expedition of Francisco Serrão out of Malacca, which was shipwrecked near Seram and rescued by local residents. Sultan Abu Lais of Ternate heard of their stranding, and, seeing a chance to ally himself with a powerful foreign nation, he brought them to Ternate in 1512. The Portuguese were permitted to build a fort (Kastella) on the island, construction of which began in 1522.[10]

Relations between the Ternateans and Portuguese were strained from the start. An outpost far from Europe generally only attracted the most desperate and avaricious, such that the generally poor behaviour of the Portuguese combined with feeble attempts at Christianisation, strained relations with Ternate's Muslim ruler,[11] as did their efforts to monopolise the spice trade and dominate local politics.[5] In 1535 King Tabariji was deposed and sent to Goa by the Portuguese. He converted to Christianity and changed his name to Dom Manuel. After being declared innocent of the charges against him he was sent back to reassume his throne; he died en route in Malacca in 1545. He had, though, bequeathed the island of Ambon to his Portuguese godfather Jordão de Freitas.[12]

When Sultan Hairun was murdered and his head exhibited on a pike in 1570, Muslim Ternateans rebelled against the Portuguese who were besieged in their castle, whose captain was Dom Álvaro de Ataíde, and in which defense Belchior Vieira de Ternate distinguished himself, until 1575, when a new Sultan made the castle his palace.[5] Ambon became the new centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku. European power in the region was weak and Ternate became an expanding, fiercely Islamic and anti-Portuguese state under the rule of Sultan Baab Ullah (r. 1570-1583) and his son Sultan Saidi Berkat.[13]

In 1580, the sultan entertained the English adventurer and circumnavigator Sir Francis Drake, who much to the surprise of the Ternateans had no interest in buying cloves as his ship, the Golden Hind, was too full of gold that he had raided from Spanish treasure ships to carry cloves.[5]

Sultan of Ternate's guard.

As the Portuguese battles in the Indian Ocean against Muslim powers raged on, Ternate became a site of interest especially for the Ottomans, who had gained much information about maritime Southeast Asia from the Sultanate of Aceh, and in fact Kurto?lu H?z?r Reis, the Ottoman Admiral, intended to reach both Java, Borneo and Ternate but was engaged in battle and was outnumbered against the Portuguese Fleet in Sumatra.

Spanish and Dutch traders competing for control over the lucrative clove trade were caught up in the competition between Ternate and Tidore. The Dutch eventually became the ruling power although for a long time their influence was limited and the sultanates were in place almost continually until today.[5] Spanish forces captured the former Portuguese fort from the Ternatese in 1606, deported the Ternate Sultan and his entourage to Manila,[14] a city which the Spanish captured from the Sultanate of Brunei by siding with the subjugated Kingdom of Tondo, the state which Manila displaced when Brunei invaded Luzon. The Spanish set up Manila as a Captaincy-General under the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain and Spanish Ternate in turn was ruled under the Governor-General based in Manila. In 1607 the Dutch came back in Ternate where with the help of Ternateans built a fort in Malayo.[15] The Spaniards occupied the southern part of the island where they had their main settlement the town of Ciudad del Rosario.[16] The island was divided between the two powers: the Spaniards were allied with Tidore and the Dutch with their Ternaten allies.

For the Ternatean rulers, the Dutch were a useful, if not particularly welcome, presence that gave them military advantages against Tidore and the Spanish. Particularly under Sultan Hamzah (r. 1627-1648), Ternate expanded its territory and strengthened its control over the periphery. Dutch influence over the kingdom was limited, though Hamzah and his successor, Sultan Mandar Syah (r. 1648-1675) did concede some regions to the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in exchange for help controlling rebellions there. The Spaniards abandoned Ternate and Tidore in 1663. When they abandoned Ternate, some of the people accompanied the Spanish in their retreat to the Philippines. About 200 families of mixed Mexican-Filipino-Spanish and Papuan-Indonesian-Portuguese descent left Ternate and settled in the Philippines.[17] In the Philippines, they settled in (Ermita, Manila), (San Roque, Cavite), (Tanza, Cavite) and (Ternate, Cavite) which they named after their homeland. However, there are still remnants of these mixed Mexican-Filipino-Spanish and Papuan-Indonesian-Portuguese people who elected to stay in Ternate, Indonesia but they were persecuted by a resurgent Islamicizing Sultanate of Ternate. In the 18th century Ternate was the site of a VOC governorship, which attempted to control all trade in the northern Moluccas.

By the 19th century, the spice trade had declined substantially. Hence the region was less central to the Netherlands colonial state, but the Dutch maintained a presence in the region in order to prevent another colonial power from occupying it. After the VOC was nationalised by the Dutch government in 1800, Ternate became part of the Government of the Moluccas (Gouvernement der Molukken). Ternate was captured and occupied by the British in 1810 before being returned to Dutch control in 1817. In 1824 became the capital of a residency (administrative region) covering Halmahera, the entire west coast of New Guinea, and the central east coast of Sulawesi. By 1867 all of Dutch-occupied New Guinea had been added to the residency, but then its region was gradually transferred to Ambon (Amboina) before being dissolved into that residency in 1922.

20th century-present

Like the rest of Indonesia, Ternate was occupied by Japanese forces during World War II; eastern Indonesia was governed by the Navy. After Japan surrendered in August 1945 and Indonesia declared independence, Ternate was reoccupied in early November 1945 by Allied forces intending to return Indonesia to Dutch control. After World War 2, the city would gained city on 10 December 1946.[4]:18 However, on 30 March 1965, Ternate's status was demoted from city (kotapraja) to a district. The city status would be regained again on 11 March 1981.[4]:19 The sultanate stays and still exist but with no power, and only acted as cultural figures.[18]

It became part of Maluku province when Indonesia became independent. Ternate saw some violence in the 1998-2000 sectarian conflict across the Maluku islands, not, however, to the extent of other islands such as nearby Halmahera.[5] After the split of new North Maluku province, it was assigned as de facto capital of the province until 2010 when Sofifi, which is located on bigger Halmahera island, was chosen. However, Sofifi still lacked of infrastructure and city status, and until today most of activities in the province was still conducted in Ternate.[19]

Geography

Ternate lies in a very active seismic region where active volcanic activity and frequent earthquakes are common. Ternate belongs to a group of islands that make up the Ring of Fire, known as the Circum-Pacific Belt.[20] Around 90% of the world's earthquakes and seismic activity occur in this 25,000-mile (40,000-kilometre) arc in the base of the Pacific Ocean. The region consists almost entirely of an uninterrupted chain of volcanic arcs and oceanic trenches, and experiences continual plate movement. There are 452 volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire, accounting for 75% of the world's dormant and active volcanoes. Ternate is dominated by the volcanic Mount Gamalama (1715 m). An 1840 eruption destroyed most houses. Recent eruptions occurred in 1980, 1983, 1994 and 2011.[5] During the 2011 eruption, Indonesia closed a domestic airport near the volcano for several days following ash emissions that reached 2,000 metres (6,600 feet) into the atmosphere.[21]

The foothills are home to groves of clove trees, and climbs to the peak of the volcano can be made. The airport lies along the northeast coastline. Hiri island is a volcanic cone lying off the northern tip of Ternate. Crocodile-infested crater Tolire Lake lies in the northwest and is bordered by sheer cliffs. Ternate beaches include Sulamadaha (on the northern tip), Afetaduma and Jouburiki in the west, and the beach at the village of Kastela in the southeast.[5]

Climate

Ternate has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) with heavy rainfall year-round.

Climate data for Ternate
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.4
(84.9)
29.5
(85.1)
29.4
(84.9)
30.2
(86.4)
29.9
(85.8)
29.6
(85.3)
29.3
(84.7)
30.0
(86.0)
29.9
(85.8)
30.2
(86.4)
30.5
(86.9)
29.1
(84.4)
29.8
(85.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.8
(78.4)
25.9
(78.6)
25.8
(78.4)
26.4
(79.5)
26.3
(79.3)
26.0
(78.8)
25.8
(78.4)
26.3
(79.3)
25.9
(78.6)
26.0
(78.8)
26.6
(79.9)
25.4
(77.7)
26.0
(78.8)
Average low °C (°F) 22.2
(72.0)
22.3
(72.1)
22.3
(72.1)
22.6
(72.7)
22.7
(72.9)
22.5
(72.5)
22.3
(72.1)
22.6
(72.7)
21.9
(71.4)
21.9
(71.4)
22.7
(72.9)
21.8
(71.2)
22.3
(72.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 200
(7.9)
186
(7.3)
183
(7.2)
225
(8.9)
244
(9.6)
210
(8.3)
158
(6.2)
127
(5.0)
125
(4.9)
140
(5.5)
197
(7.8)
204
(8.0)
2,199
(86.6)
Source: Climate-Data.org[22]

Governance

Administrative division

The city is divided into eight distrcits. Below is the list of districts with their respective population according to 2020 Census.[23]

  • Ternate Island District (8,735)
  • Moti Island District (4,811)
  • Batang Dua Island District (2,791)
  • Hiri Island District (2,922)
  • West Ternate (8,788)
  • South Ternate (74,329)
  • Central Ternate (53,643)
  • North Ternate (48,982)

Local government

As with all of Indonesian cities, the local government is a second-level administrative division run by a mayor and vice mayor together with the city parliament, and it is equivalent to regency.[24] Executive power lies in the mayor and vice mayor, while legislation duties are carried by local parliament. Mayor, vice mayor, and parliament members are democratically elected by people of the city in an election.[25] Meanwhile, head of districts are appointed directly by city mayor with recommendation by the city secretary.[26][27]

Politics

The city is part of 1st North Maluku electoral district together with West Halmahera Regency, which both together have 12 out of 45 seats in provincial parliament. On city level, it is divided into four electoral districts which in total has 30 representatives.[28] The are 1st electoral distrcit consist of Central Ternate which have eight seats on city parliament, 2nd electoral district with North Ternate which have seven seats, 3rd electoral district with South Ternate and Moti Island Distirct with 12 seats, and 4th electoral district with Ternate Island, Hiri Island, and Batang Dua Island District with three seats.[28]

Electoral district Region Representatives
Ternate 1st Central Ternate District 8
Ternate 2nd North Ternate District 7
Ternate 3rd South Ternate and Moti Island District 12
Ternate 4th Ternate Island, Hiri Island, and Batang Dua Island District 3
Total 30

Economy

Economy of the city is diverse. The city's gross regional product is dominated by service sector, such as trade and wholesale which made 25.13% of the city's gross regional product in 2020. Other big sectors are transportation sector with 13.13%, public administration and social security service with 19.15%, information and communication with 8.17%, and financial and insurance services with 7.31%. In contrast with neighbouring regions, it has very little reliance on extraction or agriculture, with mining only made 0.08% of city's gross regional product in 2020 and agriculture and fishing combined with only 4.08%.[29]

The fastest growing sector in 2020 was administration service with growth of 13.95% followed by communication and information with 10.46%. Transportation sector in 2020 was hard-hit by outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic and restriction it follows, with decline as much as 20.44%. Trading and manufacture sector were also declining, with decrease of 7.45% and 7.56% respectively in 2020.[29] The city's GDRP per capita stood at 46.13 million rupiahs in 2019, and total nominal GDRP of the city in 2020 was 10.55 trillion rupiahs or around 735.591 million dollars. It was an increase of 0.1 trillion rupiahs from previous year.[29] Economic growth in 2019 was 8.16% but later plummeted to -0.85% in 2020.[29]

Historically, the city and surrounding region was major producer of nutmeg in the world. Currently as of 2020, harvest of nutmeg in the city was numbering just 1,006 tons. Other agricultural products are clove with 330 tons, mango with 120 tons, tomato with 74.30 tons, and eggplant with 58.80 tons. The city also have significant amount of fishcatch, numbering around 44 million tons.[23] Trading sector employed the most people in the city, with total 12,683 people in 2020. Industry employed 5,068 people, and other service sector employed 2,310 people. Total registered SMEs in the city numbering around 13,765 units employed 21,723 people in the city. Most of the SMEs are engaged in commerce and trading sector. There are also 976 business entities registered in the city.[23]

In 2020, there are total 73 hotel accommodations in the city, and 104 identified potential tourist spots according to Statistics Indonesia. In 2019, the city was visited by 1,501 international tourists and 208,871 domestic tourists.[23] The city experienced 2.13% inflation in 2020.[23]

Demographics

The most populous district is South Ternate with 74,329 people while the least populous is Batang Dua Island District with only 2,791 people. Sex ratio in the city in 2020 was 101 male per 100 female population. As with most of places in Indonesia, the population is relatively young with group above 15 years numbering around 182,439 people. Population growth in 2019 was 2.21%.[23][30]

Most inhabitants of Ternate are Muslim.[31] There is also sizeable minority Protestant, mostly migrants from neighbouring regions. of The indigenous inhabitants of Ternate speak the Ternate language, which is a non-Austronesian language, belonging to the North Halmahera branch of the West Papuan languages.[31] Ternatean should be distinguished from Ternate Malay, which is a Malay-based creole, serving as the local lingua franca. Many inhabitants of Ternate use Ternatean as their first language and employ Ternate Malay as a means of interethnic or trade communication.[32] The nationwide Indonesian language is also relatively well known and understood.

Education

In 2020, the city had 114 kindergartens, 124 elementary schools, 43 junior high schools, 26 senior high schools, in addition nine vocational high schools. The city is home to a number of universities and higher education institutions.[23] All public higher education institutions in North Maluku, numbering three, are located in Ternate. Khairun University is a public university in the province, located in South Ternate District. It is the main university of the province and accepts students from the national SNMPTN system.[33][34] It was previously a private university, but was taken over by Ministry of Education and Culture to serve as public university of newly created North Maluku province on 2004.[35] There is also Ternate State Islamic Institute, which is also public and Ternate Medical Polytech.[36] Other private universities and institutions also exist, such as Muhammadiyah University, Wiratama Polytech of Science and Technology, Kie Raha Teaching and Education College, and Ternate Computer Academy.[37][38] Aside from formal education, there are six registered Islamic boarding school (pesantren) in the city as of 2021.[39] Half of them are located in South Ternate District, while the rest are located in North Ternate and Central Ternate District.[39] Due to numbers of higher education institutions in the city, it is also known as "Education City (Kota Pendidikan)".[30]

School participation rate is high, around 99.06% for children on age group of 15 years old. Female students enrollment is higher than those of male students as of 2020, with reaching 100% as opposed to 98.05% on male students.[40] Literacy rate was 99.68% as of 2020.[40] However, despite relatively developed infrastructure, schools in smaller islands, particularly such as those in Moti and Hiri District have less teacher in general compared to mainland part of the city.[41][42] Teacher to student ratio in the city is relatively lower compared to other parts of Indonesia, which is one teacher per 14 students.[23]

Healthcare

The city has total five hospitals, five polyclinics, 26 puskesmas, and 22 pharmacies as of 2020. Three out of five hospitals are located in Central Ternate District. In addition, there are 12 healthcare centers.[23] Main public hospital in the city, Dr. H. Chasan Boesoirie Regional Hospital, is a public hospital owned by province government and classified as B-class by Ministry of Health.[43] Another public hospital was inaugurated in 2021, named Ternate City Regional Hospital which is maintained by city government.[44] There's also army hospital operated by Indonesian Army.[45] Other private hospital also present such as Dharma Ibu Ternate General Hospital and Medika Harifalm General Hospital, both classified as D-class hospital.[45][46]

Only 68% of city population has government-mandeted healthcare insurance BPJS Kesehatan as of 2020, and major health problem in the city includes the fact that 27.59% of city population above 15 years old smoked average 80 cigarettes per week.[40] Toddler vaccination in the city for basic vaccines such as BCG and Polio is relatively high, at 92.29% and 89.70% respectively, while 91.02% of birhts in the city were assisted by professional healthcare workers.[40] The city has life expectancy of around 71 years, which is roughly similar to national average.[47]

Culture & entertaiment

Historical sites

The city is home to numerous historical forts built by both Europeans and Sultanate of Ternate, such as Kalamata Fort, Kastela Fort, Oranje Fort, and Santo Pedro Fort. Fort Tolukko and Fort Kalamata were built by Portuguese, while Fort Oranje, the largest among them, was a temporary headquarters of Dutch East India Company.[48] The palace of Sultan Ternate still exist and currently function as a museum. It is named Kedaton Sultan Ternate and is considered national cultural heritage of Indonesia. Another historical building is Ternate Sultanate Mosque, which was built close to the palace.[48]

Festivals

The city celebrated kora-kora (traditional Moluccan boat) festival during their city anniversary which were held in early December. It consist of parade of decorated boats, rowing competition, fishing competition, and traditional art and dance shows.[49] Other festival included Legu Gam Festivel, which were held to celebrate sultan's birthday. During the festival, several special traditional dances were performed in parade.[50] These festivals have been supported and promoted by Ministry of Tourism.[51]

Ternate city from above, Nukila Park can be seen close to waterfront

City parks

There are several city parks in Ternate, such as Nukila Park which is facing the sea.[52] Located between Toboko and Mangga Dua subdistrict, was built above reclamed land. During weekends and holidays, it is usually filled with streetfood sellers.[53] From the park, Tidore island also can be seen.[54] Another city park, Moya Park, located on Moya subdistrict, was previously dump site. The park has facilities such as live music and several small food stores selling coffee. From the park also Ternate city from height could be seen, and the park is popular site for New Year celebration.[55] The city government also has introduced several free WiFi hotspots in public spaces, including city parks.[56][57]

Others

The city is home to several shopping malls, such as Jatiland Mall, Hypermart Ternate, and Muara Mall.[58][59] The city also offers good diving hotspots not far from the city center such as behind Al Munawar Grand Mosque Ternate.[60]

Transportation

There are 319 kilometers of road in the city, out of which 284 kilometers have been paved with hotmix asphalt. There is also 18 kilometers that are sealed with concrete instead. Owing to consisting of several islands, water transport is an important part of the city's transportation system.[23] Goods transport is mostly done through Ahmad Yani Port which is the city's container port.[61] It is a relatively large port with quay length of 167 meters and container yards of 1,889 hectares.[62] The port is also served by routes operated by Pelni, and served 376,727 people out of the city in 2019.[61][30] Other than that, the city also has separate port for fishing vessels, which could handle ship up to 2,250GT.[63] The city is served by Sultan Babullah Airport.[64] In 2019, the airport served departure of 267,075 people.[30]

The city has angkots while online ride-hailing services such as Gojek are also present in the city.[65][66]

Media

There are nine media companies registered in Ternate according to Indonesian Press Council, both digital and printed.[67] There are local television stations such as Gamalama TV, and also branches of nationwide private channels such as Trans TV Ternate Branch.[67] Printed news media in the city included Malut Post, Fajar Malut, and Posko Malut.[67][68] Radio Republik Indonesia also has local branch in Ternate.[69][70][71]

See also

References

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  2. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
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  10. ^ Jarnagin, Laura (2012). "The fortress of Sao Joao Baptista on Ternate". Portuguese and Luso-Asian legacies in Southeast Asia, 1511-2011. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 9789814345507. OCLC 864556584.
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  12. ^ The Cambridge history of Islam. Holt, P. M. (Peter Malcolm),, Lambton, Ann K. S., 1912-2008,, Lewis, Bernard, 1916-2018. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press. 1977. pp. 135-136. ISBN 0-521-29135-6. OCLC 958834252.CS1 maint: others (link)
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  15. ^ Peter Borschberg (2015). Journal, Memorials and Letters of Cornelis Matelieff de Jonge. Security, Diplomacy and Commerce in 17th-Century Southeast Asia. Singapore: NUS Press. pp. 87, 102, 556. Retrieved 2015.
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Ternate
 



 



 
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