Timeline of Croatian History
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Timeline of Croatian History

This is a timeline of Croatian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Croatia and its predecessor states. Featured articles are in bold. To read about the background to these events, see History of Croatia. See also the list of rulers of Croatia and years in Croatia.

7th century

Year Date Event
660 Porga became knez of the Principality of Littoral Croatia.
Littoral Croatia was Christianized.[1]

8th century

Year Date Event
799 Siege of Trsat: Invading Frankish forces were repelled from Trsat, resulting in the death of their commander Eric of Friuli.[2]

9th century

Year Date Event
803 Borna became knez of Littoral Croatia following the death of his father Vi?eslav.
810 Ljudevit became knez of the Slavs in Lower Pannonia.
823 Ljudevit died.[3]
838 Knez Ratimir was deposed from the throne of Lower Pannonia in favor of the pro-French Ratbod.
839 Knez Mislav of Littoral Croatia signed a peace treaty with the Republic of Venice[4] during the early phase of the Croatian-Venetian wars.
840 Venetian Doge Pietro Tradonico led a failed assault on the nearby Croat land of Pagania.
The Byzantine Emperor Basil I helped break an Arab siege of Dubrovnik.[5][6]
846 Pagania breached Venice and raided the Venetian town of Caorle.[4]
879 7 June Pope John VIII styled knez Branimir of Littoral Croatia Duke of Croats, effectively recognizing Littoral Croatia as an independent state.[7]
887 18 September Venetian Doge Pietro I Candiano was killed in an attempted invasion of Pagania.[8]

10th century

Year Date Event
925 Knez Tomislav of Littoral Croatia was crowned King of a united Croatia, establishing the Trpimirovi? dynasty[9][10]
926 Croatian-Bulgarian battle of 926: Tomislav defeated the invading forces of the Bulgarian Empire.[9]
928 Pope Leo VI transferred the bishopric at Nin to Skradin.[11]
948 Venice tried and failed to capture Dubrovnik.[12]
949 King Miroslav was killed by Ban Pribina during a civil war started by his younger brother Michael Kre?imir II, who succeeded him.
986 Byzantine Emperor Basil II recognized Croatia as an independent kingdom and declared King Stephen Dr?islav the Patriarch of Dalmatia and Croatia.
996 Venetian Doge Pietro II Orseolo stopped paying tax to the Croatian King after a century of peace, renewing old hostilities and starting a new phase of the Croatian-Venetian wars.
998 Siege of Zadar: Emperor Samuil of Western Bulgarian Tsardom launched a military campaign against Kingdom of Croatia and besieged the city of Zadar.

11th century

Year Date Event
1000 Battle of Lastovo: Doge Pietro II Orseolo of the Republic of Venice attacked the Town of Lastovo in the Kingdom of Croatia and destroyed it.
1020 King Kre?imir III was accused in the death of his brother Gojslav. Pope Benedict VIII withdrew his title pending an investigation.[13]
Kre?imir was restored.[13]
1058 Peter Kre?imir IV "The Great" succeeded his father Stephen I upon his death.
1076 8 October Demetrius Zvonimir was crowned King in Solin by a representative of Pope Gregory VII.[9]
1091 King Stephen II died peacefully without an heir, bringing the Trpimirovi? dynasty to a close.[14]
1097 Battle of Gvozd Mountain: King Petar Sva?i? died in a loss to King Coloman of Hungary.[15]

12th century

Year Date Event
1102 The Croatian nobility agreed to the Pacta conventa under which Croatia was joined in a personal union with Hungary, with the King appointing the Ban of Croatia and the Croatian nobility holding power in a Sabor, or Parliament.[16][17]
1185 Serbian forces launched a failed siege against Dubrovnik.[18]

13th century

Year Date Event
1204 26 August Emeric abdicated the throne to his young son Ladislaus III of Hungary.
1205 7 May Ladislaus died. He was succeeded by Emeric's younger brother Andrew II of Hungary.
1235 21 September Andrew died. He was succeeded by his son Béla IV of Hungary.
1242 16 November Béla issued the Golden Bull of 1242, giving the residents of Gradec some individual and democratic rights and releasing them from allegiance to local lords.[19][20]
1270 3 May Béla died. He was succeeded by his son, Stephen V of Hungary.
1272 6 August Stephen died. He was succeeded by his son Ladislaus IV of Hungary.
1293 Paul I ?ubi? of Bribir became Ban of Croatia.
1299 Paul conquered Bosnia, taking the title of Dominus of Bosnia, and appointing his brother Mladen I ?ubi? of Bribir Ban of Bosnia.[21]

14th century

Year Date Event
1301 14 January Andrew died without a son. Charles Martel's son Charles I of Hungary was crowned King of Hungary.
27 August The Hungarian nobility crowned Wenceslaus III of Bohemia King of Hungary and Croatia.
1305 After quashing resistance in Bosnia, Paul I ?ubi? took the title Lord of All Bosnia and the exclusive power of coining money.[21][22]
6 December Wenceslaus III of Bohemia abdicated the throne to Otto III, Duke of Bavaria.
1307 June Otto was imprisoned by the Transylvanian Voivode Ladislaus Kán.
10 October The Hungarian nobility elected Charles King.
1308 Otto abdicated his claim to the Hungarian throne.
1312 1 May Paul I ?ubi? died. His son Mladen II ?ubi? of Bribir succeeded him as Ban.
1322 Battle of Bliska: Mladen lost to a coalition of Croatian noblemen at Trogir.
8 October Charles dismissed Mladen as Ban.
1342 16 July Charles died. He was succeeded by his son Louis I of Hungary.
1345 12 August Siege of Zadar was laid by the Republic of Venice.
1358 18 February The Treaty of Zadar was signed. Venice ceded Dalmatia to Croatia.
1370 17 November Louis became King of Poland on the death of Casimir III the Great.
1382 11 September Louis died. He was succeeded in Hungary by his ten-year-old daughter Mary, Queen of Hungary with his wife Elizabeth of Bosnia acting as regent.
1385 Mary was overthrown by Charles III of Naples.
1386 7 February Charles was assassinated on Elizabeth's orders.
1387 31 March Mary was again crowned Queen of Hungary. Her husband Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor was crowned King.
1390 Charles's son Ladislaus of Naples expressed a claim to the throne of Hungary.
1392 Sigismund appointed Nicholas II Garay Ban of Croatia.
1395 17 May Mary died under suspicious circumstances. Sigismund became the sole ruler of Croatia and Hungary.
1397 Nicholas left office.
27 February Bloody Sabor of Kri?evci: Croatian Ban Stjepan II Lackovi? was killed in Kri?evci for supporting Ladislaus against King Sigismund.[23][24]

15th century

Year Date Event
1403 5 August Hungarian nobles opposed to Sigismund crowned Ladislaus King.
1406 Hermann II, Count of Celje became Ban of Croatia.
1408 Hermann left office.
1409 Ladislaus sold his rights on Dalmatia to Venice.[25]
1437 9 December Sigismund died.
1438 1 January Sigismund's son-in-law Albert II of Germany was crowned King of Hungary and Croatia according to his will.
1439 27 October Albert died without a male heir; his wife was pregnant with his son Ladislaus the Posthumous.
1440 22 February Ladislaus was born.
15 May W?adys?aw III of Poland accepted the Hungarian crown from the nobility.
Ladislaus's mother crowned him King.
1444 10 November Battle of Varna: W?adys?aw died in a battlefield loss to the Ottoman Empire. The Hungarian nobility elected Ladislaus, then imprisoned in Schloss Ort by his second cousin Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, with John Hunyadi acting as regent.
1452 Ladislaus was freed by Ulrich II, Count of Celje, who became his guardian and effectively his regent.
1456 9 November Ulrich was killed by Hunyadi's son Ladislaus.
1457 16 March Ladislaus had Ladislaus Hunyadi beheaded and fled Hungary.
23 November Ladislaus died, probably of leukemia.
1458 20 January The Hungarian nobility elected Ladislaus Hunyadi's brother Matthias Corvinus King.
1472 Nicholas of Ilok became Ban of Croatia.
Nicholas left office.
1483 Matija Gereb was made Ban.
1489 Gereb left office.
1490 6 April Matthias died without legitimate heirs.
18 September The Hungarian nobility elected Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary as King.
1493 9 September Battle of Krbava field: Croatia suffered a defeat at the hands of the Ottoman Empire.[26][27]
1499 Matthias's illegitimate son John Corvinus became Ban of Croatia.

16th century

Year Date Event
1504 12 October Corvinus died.
1513 Petar Berislavi? was appointed Ban of Croatia.
1516 13 March Vladislaus died. He was succeeded by his ten-year-old son Louis II of Hungary, with a royal council appointed by the Hungarian diet acting as regent.
1520 20 May Berislavi? was killed.
1521 Ivan Karlovi? became Ban.
1524 Karlovi? left office.
1526 29 August Battle of Mohács: Louis died childless in a crushing defeat at the hands of the Ottoman Empire near Mohács.[28]
10 November John Zápolya was crowned King of Hungary.
December Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor crowned himself King of Hungary.
1527 Karlovi? again became Ban.
1 January 1527 election in Cetin: The Croatian nobility unanimously elected Ferdinand King and confirmed the succession to his heirs, ending the personal union with Hungary.[28]
27 September Battle of Tarcal: Forces allied to Ferdinand dealt a bloody defeat to supporters of Zápolya.
1528 20 March Battle of Szina: Zápolya was defeated and forced to flee to Poland.
1531 Karlovi? died.
1537 Petar Keglevi? became Ban.
1538 24 February The Treaty of Grosswardein was signed, dividing Hungary between Ferdinand and Zápolya and making Ferdinand heir to the entire kingdom on the death of the then-childless Zápolya.[]
1540 18 July Zápolya had a son, John II Sigismund Zápolya.
22 July Zápolya died. The Hungarian nobility recognized his son John II as King.
1542 Keglevi? was removed from office.
Nikola ?ubi? Zrinski was appointed Ban.
1553 In response to repeated Ottoman incursions, Ferdinand established the directly administered Croatian Military Frontier.
1556 Zrinski was removed from office.
1557 Péter Erd?dy was appointed Ban.
1564 25 July Ferdinand died. He was succeeded by his son Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor.
1566 8 September Siege of Szigetvár: The forces of the Ottoman Empire suffered losses taking the fortress at Szigetvár that forced them to abandon their advance on Vienna.[29]
1567 Erd?dy died.
1570 Hungarian King John II abdicated the throne to Maximilian.
1573 28 January Croatian-Slovenian peasant revolt: A peasant revolt led by Matija Gubec began which sought to overthrow the power of the nobility.
9 February Croatian-Slovenian peasant revolt: Gubec was captured.
1576 12 October Maximilian died. He was succeeded by his son Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor.
1578 Krsto Ungnad was appointed Ban.
1583 Ungnad left office. He was succeeded as Ban by Tamás Erd?dy.
1584 26 October Battle of Slunj: Invading Ottoman forces were defeated by the defending Croatian army.
1592 Siege of Biha?: Once capital of Croatia conquered by the Ottomans; never reconquered back, lost for Croatia forever.
1593 22 June Battle of Sisak: Croatia dealt the Ottoman Empire a crushing defeat at Sisak.[30]
1595 Erd?dy left office.

17th century

Year Date Event
1608 Erd?dy again became Ban.
19 November Rudolf was deposed from the throne of Croatia by his brother Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor.
1615 Erd?dy left office.
1618 1 July Matthias was succeeded by his cousin Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor.
1622 15 November Juraj V Zrinski was appointed Ban.
1626 28 December Zrinski was poisoned.
1637 15 February Ferdinand II died. He was succeeded by his son Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor.
1647 Nikola Zrinski was appointed Ban of Croatia.
1657 2 April Ferdinand III died. He was succeeded by his son Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor.
1663 September Austro-Turkish War (1663-1664): An Ottoman army invaded Hungary.
1664 5 June Siege of Novi Zrin (1664): Ottoman forces started to besiege the fortress in Me?imurje County.
1 August Battle of Saint Gotthard (1664) : Ottoman forces were dealt a decisive defeat by the League of the Rhine at Szentgotthárd.
10 August Austro-Turkish War (1663-1664): The Peace of Vasvár was signed, ending hostilities for twenty years and ceding some Croatian land to the Ottoman Empire.
18 November Nikola Zrinski died.
1665 24 January Petar Zrinski was appointed Ban.
1671 30 April Zrinski was executed for high treason in connection with the Magnate conspiracy.
Miklós Erd?dy was appointed Ban of Croatia.
1693 Erd?dy died.

18th century

Year Date Event
1704 24 January János Pálffy was appointed Ban.
1705 5 May Leopold died. He was succeeded as king by his son Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor.
1711 17 April Joseph died of smallpox. He was succeeded by his younger brother Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor.
1713 9 April Charles issued the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, which made it possible for women to inherit the Habsburg throne.
1732 17 February Pálffy left office.
1740 20 October Charles died. He was succeeded by his daughter, Queen Maria Theresa.
1743 16 March Károly József Batthyány became Ban.
1756 The capital was moved from Zagreb to Vara?din.
6 July Batthyány left office.
1776 A fire destroyed two-thirds of Vara?din.[31][32] The Croatian capital moved back to Zagreb.
1780 29 November Maria Theresa died. Her son Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor became King of Croatia.
1790 20 February Joseph died. He was succeeded by his younger brother Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor.
1792 1 March Leopold died. He was succeeded by his son Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor.

19th century

Year Date Event
1804 11 August Francis established the Austrian Empire on the territories of the Habsburg Monarchy.
1806 Ignaz Gyulai was appointed Ban of Croatia.
1831 11 November Gyulai died.
1832 10 February Franjo Vla?i? was appointed Ban.
1835 2 March Francis died of fever. He was succeeded as king by his son Ferdinand I of Austria.
1840 16 May Vla?i? died. He was succeeded as acting Ban by Juraj Haulik.
1845 29 July Thirteen protesters, the July victims, were killed in Zagreb while protesting a flawed local election.
1848 15 March Hungarian Revolution of 1848: Revolutionaries read the 12 points of the Hungarian Revolutionaries of 1848 before a crowd in Buda. The crowd marched on the Imperial Governing Council and forced Ferdinand's representatives to sign them.
23 March Josip Jela?i? was appointed Ban.
11 April Ferdinand signed the April Laws, devolving some powers to the Kingdom of Hungary.
19 April The Sabor proclaimed the union of the Croatian provinces, their secession from the Kingdom of Hungary within the Austrian Empire, and the abolition of serfdom. It further declared the equality of peoples in Croatia.[33]
29 September Battle of Pákozd: A revolutionary army seeking Hungarian independence from Austria forced a Croatian retreat.
2 December Hungarian Revolution of 1848: Ferdinand abdicated in favor of his nephew Franz Joseph I of Austria.
1859 20 May Jela?i? died.
28 July Johann Baptist Coronini-Cronberg was appointed Ban.
1860 19 June Josip ?ok?evi? was appointed Ban.
1866 14 June Austro-Prussian War: Prussia declared war on Austria.
3 July Battle of Königgrätz: Austria suffered a devastating defeat at Prussian hands at Königgrätz.
23 August Austro-Prussian War: The Peace of Prague (1866) was signed, ending the war.
1867 30 March The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was ratified, establishing the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary which devolved almost all power to the Austrian and Hungarian kingdoms respectively.[]
27 June Levin Rauch was appointed acting Ban.
20 October A new electoral law reduced the size of the Sabor to sixty-six seats.
1868 The Croatian-Hungarian Settlement was signed by the Hungarian Parliament and the Croatian Sabor. The Kingdom of Slavonia was incorporated into Croatia; the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was established as an autonomous state within Hungary.[34]
1871 26 January Koloman Bedekovi? succeeded Rauch as Ban.
8 October Rakovica Revolt: Politician Eugen Kvaternik declared the establishment of an independent Croatian government, seated at Rakovica and incorporating the Croatian Military Frontier.[]
11 October Rakovica Revolt: Kvaternik was executed.
1873 20 September Ivan Ma?urani? became Ban.
1880 21 February Ladislav Peja?evi? succeeded Ma?urani? as Ban.
1881 The Croatian Military Frontier was incorporated into Croatia-Slavonia.
1883 19 April Croatian parliamentary by-election, 1883: The first day of elections to the Sabor from the former territories of the Croatian Military Frontier was held.[]
21 April Croatian parliamentary by-election, 1883: The last day of elections was held. The government list won a majority of available seats.
4 September Hermann von Ramberg succeeded Peja?evi? as Ban.
1 December Ramberg was dismissed.
4 December Károly Khuen-Héderváry became Ban.
1884 16 September Croatian parliamentary election, 1884: The first day of balloting was held.
19 September Croatian parliamentary election, 1884: The last day of balloting was held. The People's Party won a majority of seats in the Sabor.
1895 16 October 1895 visit of Emperor Franz Joseph to Zagreb: Student protesters burned the Hungarian flag in Ban Jela?i? Square.
1897 19 May Croatian parliamentary election, 1897: The first day of elections was held.
22 May Croatian parliamentary election, 1897: The last day of balloting was held. The People's Party won a majority of seats in the Sabor.

20th century

Year Date Event
1903 27 June Ban Khuen-Héderváry resigned to become the Hungarian Prime Minister.
Teodor Peja?evi? was appointed Ban.
1907 26 June Aleksandar Rakodczay became Ban.
1908 8 January Pavao Rauch was appointed Ban.
27 February Croatian parliamentary election, 1908: The first day of balloting was held.
28 February Croatian parliamentary election, 1908: The second day of balloting was held. The Croat-Serb Coalition won a majority of seats in the Sabor.
12 March Rauch dissolved the Sabor.
1910 5 February Rauch was dismissed and replaced as Ban by Nikola Toma?i?.
28 October Croatian parliamentary election, 1910: The Croat-Serb Coalition won a plurality of seats in the Sabor.
1912 19 January Slavko Cuvaj was appointed Ban.
1913 21 July Ivan ?krlec was appointed Ban.
16 December Croatian parliamentary election, 1913: The first day of balloting was held.
17 December Croatian parliamentary election, 1913: The second day of balloting was held. The Croat-Serb Coalition won a majority of seats in the Sabor.
1914 28 June Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria: Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip of the Bosnian separatist group Young Bosnia.[]
23 July July Crisis: Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia, demanding, among other things, the right to participate in the investigation into the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, which Serbia refused.[]
28 July World War I: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
30 July World War I: Russia mobilized its army to defend Serbia.
1915 ?krlec reconvened the Sabor.
26 April World War I: The secret Treaty of London (1915) was signed, under which Russia, France and the United Kingdom recognized Italian territorial claims (including some in Croatia) in return for Italy's joining the war on the side of the Triple Entente.[]
1916 21 November Franz Joseph I of Austria died. He was succeeded as king by his grandnephew Charles I of Austria.
1917 29 June Skerlecz resigned. Antun Mihalovi? became Ban.
1918 29 October The Sabor dissolved Croatia's union with Austria-Hungary and incorporated the Kingdom of Dalmatia into the new State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.
1 December The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs joined with Serbia to form the new Kingdom of Yugoslavia under King Peter I of Serbia.
1919 20 January Mihalovi? left office.
1920 12 November Yugoslavia signed the Treaty of Rapallo (1920), acceding to Italian claims on some of its territory.
28 November Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes Constitutional Assembly election, 1920: The Democratic Party, People's Radical Party and Communist Party were the three most successful parties by number of seats received in the Assembly.
29 December The government issued a decree banning Communist propaganda and ordering the dissolution of all Communist organizations until approval of the Constitution.
1921 28 June The Vidovdan Constitution, which abolished the traditional divisions of the region in favor of thirty-three oblasts ruled by royal appointees, was approved.
16 August Peter died. He was succeeded as king by his son Alexander I of Yugoslavia.
1923 18 March Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes parliamentary election, 1923: The People's Radical Party won a plurality of seats in Parliament.
1925 8 February Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes parliamentary election, 1925: The People's Radical Party won a plurality of seats in Parliament.
1927 11 September Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes parliamentary election, 1927: The People's Radical Party won a plurality of seats in Parliament.
1928 20 June Puni?a Ra?i? of the People's Radical Party shot five members of the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) during a session of Parliament. Two were killed instantly, and Party leader Stjepan Radi? was fatally wounded.
8 August Radi? died.
1929 6 January 6 January Dictatorship: Alexander issued a decree dissolving Parliament and abolishing the Constitution.
3 October Alexander replaced the thirty-three oblasts with nine banovinas.
1931 3 September 6 January Dictatorship: Alexander issued the 1931 Yugoslav Constitution, ending the dictatorship.
1934 9 October Alexander was assassinated by a Bulgarian mercenary, Vlado Chernozemski, with the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization; Chernozemski had been contracted by the Usta?e, which was formed in 1929. Alexander was succeeded by his eleven-year-old son, Peter, with his cousin, Prince Paul, leading a regency council of three.[]
1935 5 May Yugoslavian parliamentary election, 1935: The Yugoslav National Party won a majority of seats in Parliament.
1938 11 December Yugoslavian parliamentary election, 1938: The Yugoslav Radical Union won a majority of seats in Parliament.
1939 23 August The Cvetkovi?-Ma?ek Agreement was approved, establishing the autonomous Banovina of Croatia with an elected Sabor and a crown-appointed Ban.
26 August Ivan ?uba?i? was appointed Ban of Croatia.
1941 25 March World War II: Prince Paul signed the Tripartite Pact, pledging support to the Axis Powers.
27 March Yugoslav military coup of March 27, 1941: A military coup overthrew the Regency and declared Peter II to be of age.[]
6 April World War II in Yugoslavia begins
6 April Invasion of Yugoslavia: Germany opened an invasion of Yugoslavia with an air attack on Belgrade.
10 April Independent State of Croatia declared by Ante Paveli? of the Usta?e.
13 May Croatia signed a treaty establishing its borders with Germany.
18 May Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta was crowned King Tomislav II of Croatia by the Italian King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy.
19 May Croatia ceded land, including most of Dalmatia, to Italy by signing the treaty of Rapallo.
7 June Croatia's borders with Serbia were established.
22 June Operation Barbarossa: Germany launched an invasion of the Soviet Union.
4 July A call by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia to resist the Usta?e government marked the birth of the Yugoslav Partisans.
August Glina massacre: The Usta?e killed several hundred Serb civilians in a church in Glina.
27 October Croatia's borders with Montenegro were established.
1942 5 October Operation Alfa: Italian and Chetnik forces attacked the Partisan-held town of Prozor.
10 October Operation Alfa: The battle ended in a Partisan defeat.
26 November The Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) was established as the political organization of the Yugoslav Partisans.
1943 15 May Battle of the Sutjeska: Axis troops surrounded the main Partisan force on the east bank of the Sutjeska river in Bosnia.
14 June The National Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Croatia (ZAVNOH), composed of Croatian members of the AVNOJ, held its first session and declared Vladimir Nazor President.
16 June Battle of the Sutjeska: The Partisans escaped across the Sutjeska.
25 July Italian King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy dismissed his Prime Minister Benito Mussolini.
31 July Tomislav abdicated on the orders of the Italian King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy.
8 September World War II: An armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces was published, voiding Croatia's territorial concessions of 1941 and the Treaty of Rapallo (1920).
15 November Operation Delphin: Croatian forces undertook a campaign to capture several islands in the Adriatic Sea off the cost of central Dalmatia.
21 November The second session of the AVNOJ established the National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia, the government-in-waiting of a federal, democratic Yugoslavia under Prime Minister Josip Broz Tito.
1 December Operation Delphin: The operation concluded successfully.
1944 9 May The Federal State of Croatia was established at the third session of the ZAVNOH.
13 May The Department for the Protection of the People (OZNA) was established under Aleksandar Rankovi?.
25 May Raid on Drvar: German paratroopers attacked Partisan headquarters near Drvar. Tito escaped.
16 June Tito and ?uba?i? signed the Treaty of Vis, which provided for a coalition of royalists and Communists in the government of the future Yugoslavia.
1945 30 March Battle on Lijev?e field: Croatian and Chetnik forces met at Lijev?e.
8 April Battle on Lijev?e field: The Chetniks surrendered.
6 May Paveli? fled the country.
8 May World War II in Yugoslavia formally ends with the German Instrument of Surrender, but fighting continues.
14 May Battle of Poljana: Retreating Axis troops were forced to surrender to the Partisans.
15 May Bleiburg repatriations: After the retreating Axis column is stopped at Bleiburg, Austria, and forced by the British Army to surrender instead to the Yugoslav Partisans,[35] the Yugoslav Partisans commit thousands of reprisal killings against the remnants of the Usta?e and the civilians who fled Croatia alongside them, as well as some Slovene, Serb, and Montenegrin collaborators.[]
10 June Tito agreed to the separation of Allied and Partisan forces at the Morgan Line.
21 August ZAVNOH declared itself the People's Parliament of Croatia.
25 August The People's Parliament elected Nazor President of Croatia.
October The royalists in the Yugoslavian government resigned.
11 November The Communist Party won an overwhelming majority of votes to the Constituent Assembly of Yugoslavia.
29 November The Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was declared and King Peter deposed.
1946 31 January The 1946 Yugoslav Constitution came into force.
1947 10 February The Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 were signed, solidifying Yugoslavia's border with Italy and establishing the Free Territory of Trieste, half of which was to be under Yugoslavian military occupation.[]
September The Cominform was established.
1948 May Tito-Stalin split: Croatian Communist Party member Andrija Hebrang was arrested after supporting the Soviet Union in a dispute with Yugoslavia.[]
28 June Tito-Stalin split: Yugoslavia was expelled from the Cominform.
1949 19 June Nazor died.
1950 26 June Tito announced the introduction of workers' self-management in Yugoslavia.
1953 13 January The 1953 Yugoslav Constitution came into force.
December Vladimir Bakari? became President of Croatia.
1963 7 April The 1963 Yugoslav Constitution came into force.
1967 13 March Croatian Spring: The Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Literary Language was published, demanding equal status for the Croatian language.
1971 23 November Croatian Spring: A student protest began in Zagreb.
December Croatian Spring: Tito forced Chair of the Croatian Communist Party Savka Dab?evi?-Ku?ar to resign.
1974 21 February The 1974 Yugoslav Constitution came into force, establishing a nine-member Presidency of Yugoslavia of which Tito was president for Life.
April Ivo Peri?in became President of Croatia.
8 May Peri?in was succeeded by a rotating Croatian Presidency under the 1974 Yugoslav Constitution.
1975 10 November The Treaty of Osimo was signed, under which Italy and Yugoslavia were allowed to annex their respective occupation zones in Trieste.
1980 4 May Tito died. He was succeeded as President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia by the Macedonian Lazar Koli?evski.
15 May The Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Bosnian Cvijetin Mijatovi?.
1981 15 May The Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Slovenian Sergej Kraigher.
1982 15 May The Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Serbian Petar Stamboli?.
1983 15 May The Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Croatian Mika ?piljak.
1984 15 May The Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Montenegrin Veselin ?uranovi?.
1985 15 May The Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Vojvodin Radovan Vlajkovi?.
1986 10 May Ante Markovi? assumed the Presidency of Croatia.
15 May The Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Kosovar Sinan Hasani.
1987 15 May The Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Macedonian Lazar Mojsov.
1988 15 May The Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Bosnian Raif Dizdarevi?.
1989 15 May The Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Slovenian Janez Drnov?ek.
1990 23 January A Communist Party Congress ended the party's legal monopoly in Croatia.
22 April Croatian parliamentary election, 1990: The first round of elections was held.
6 May Croatian parliamentary election, 1990: The second round of elections was held. The Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) won a majority of seats in all houses of Parliament.
15 May The Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Serbian Borisav Jovi?.
30 May The Serb Democratic Party (SDS) quit the Croatian Parliament.
25 July A Serbian Assembly led by the SDS declared the establishment of the Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Kninska Krajina.
17 August Log Revolution: Secessionist Serbs barricaded roads connecting Kninska Krajina to the rest of Croatia.
October Kninska Krajina was superseded by the larger Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Krajina.
22 December The current Constitution of Croatia was ratified. Franjo Tu?man of the HDZ was made President of Croatia.
1991 2 March Pakrac clash: Croatian police arrested 180 Serb rebels who had occupied the town of Pakrac.
25 March Presidents of Croatia and Serbia partake in the Milo?evi?-Tu?man Kara?or?evo meeting
31 March Plitvice Lakes incident: Croatian police entered the Plitvice Lakes National Park to expel the secessionist forces of Krajina. Two combatants were killed.
1 April Plitvice Lakes incident: The Yugoslavian army intervened to end the crisis.
1 May Two Croatian police officers were taken prisoner by Serb secessionists in Borovo Selo.
2 May The Croatian Parliament voted to hold a referendum on independence from Yugoslavia.
Borovo Selo killings: An attempt to free the captives resulted in a firefight between Serb rebels and police. Twelve Croatian policemen killed, with an unknown number of rebel casualties.
15 May Serbia blocked the accession of Croatian Stjepan Mesi? to the Yugoslavian Presidency.
19 May Croatian independence referendum, 1991: Croatian independence from Yugoslavia was approved in referendum, with 93% support.
25 June The Croatian Parliament declared Croatia independent from Yugoslavia.
Serb secessionists declared the Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia.
July Battle of Osijek: JNA forces began shelling the town of Osijek.
15 July Operation Coast-91: JNA and SAO Krajina forces attacked the town of Biograd but were rebuffed.
August Operation Opera Orientalis: Yugoslavian intelligence bombed Jewish cemeteries in an attempt to turn international opinion against Croatian independence.
1 August Dalj massacre: Serb rebels killed twenty-eight police officers and eleven Croat civilians in Dalj.
12 August Serb secessionists declared the Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Western Slavonia.
25 August Battle of Vukovar: The Yugoslavian army and Serb militias laid siege to the town of Vukovar.
9 September Battle of the Barracks: The Yugoslavian barracks in Sisak surrendered to Croatian forces.
16 September Battle of ?ibenik (1991): The Yugoslavian army attacked Croatian forces in ?ibenik.
22 September Battle of ?ibenik (1991): Yugoslavian forces were made to retreat.
1 October Siege of Dubrovnik: Yugoslavian forces surrounded Dubrovnik.
6 October Operation Coast-91: A truce was agreed.
7 October Bombing of Banski dvori: The Yugoslavian army bombed the government residence, the Banski dvori in Zagreb.
13 October ?iroka Kula massacre: Serb forces killed thirty-four civilians.
16 October Gospi? massacre: A three-day massacre began during which Serb forces killed between twenty-three and one hundred civilians.
18 October Lovas massacre: Serbs forced a group of Croat civilians to walk across a minefield, killing twenty-one.
21 October Ba?in massacre: Serb rebel forces killed some fifty-six civilians.
31 October Operation Otkos 10: Croatian forces moved to block a Yugoslavian advance on Zagreb.
4 November Operation Otkos 10: The operation concluded successfully.
10 November Erdut massacre: Serb rebels executed the first ten of the thirty-seven Hungarian and Croat civilians they would eventually massacre in Erdut.
12 November Saborsko massacre: Serb rebel forces killed twenty-nine civilians in Saborsko.
14 November Battle of the Dalmatian channels: A Yugoslavian ship was sunk by the Croatian navy near Split.
16 November Battle of the Dalmatian channels: The Yugoslavian blockade of Split was broken.
18 November Battle of Vukovar: The last Croatian forces surrendered.
?kabrnja massacre: Serb forces took the town of ?kabrnja and began a massacre which would eventually claim eighty-six lives.
Bosnian War: The Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZBiH) established Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia at municipalities with majority of Croatian people on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
20 November Vukovar massacre: Some 264 civilians, mostly Croats, were murdered by Serb militias near Vukovar.
12 December Operation Orkan 91 The Croatian Army began an advance into Krajina.
Operation Whirlwind: The Croatian army attempted to cross the Kupa river against Krajina forces.
13 December Vo?in massacre: A Serb paramilitary group, the White Eagles, killed several dozen people before retreating from Vo?in.
Operation Whirlwind: The Croatian advance was stopped.
16 December Jo?evica massacre: Serb forces killed twenty-one civilians in Jo?evica.
19 December Krajina declared independence from Croatia, proclaiming itself the Republic of Serbian Krajina.
21 December Bru?ka massacre: Serb forces killed ten civilians in Bru?ka.
1992 2 January Operation Orkan 91: A ceasefire was negotiated.
Battle of Osijek: A ceasefire was negotiated.
26 February Krajina invested SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia and Western Slavonia.
6 May Bosnian War: The Graz agreement was drafted, delineating the demarcation between Herzeg-Bosnia and the Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
26 May Siege of Dubrovnik: Croatian forces broke the siege.
June Operation Vrbas '92: Military offensive of the Army of Republika Srpska against the HVO and ARBiH in Jajce.
14 June Operation Corridor: The Army of Republika Srpska launched an offensive against the joint forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Herzeg-Bosnia.
21 June Miljevci plateau incident: Croatian forces captured some thirty square miles in a surprise attack on Krajina forces.
26 June Operation Corridor: The operation ended with the successful linking of the two parts of Republika Srpska.
2 August Croatian parliamentary election, 1992: The HDZ won a majority of seats in the Sabor.
Croatian presidential election, 1992: Tu?man was reelected with 57% of the vote.
12 August Hrvoje ?arini? of the HDZ was elected Prime Minister.
18 October Croat-Bosniak War: First armed clashes between the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) and the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH).
27 October Operation Vrbas '92: The operation concluded with the conquest of Jajce.
1993 22 January Operation Maslenica: The Croatian army launched an offensive to reconquer Krajina territory in northern Dalmatia.
1 February Operation Maslenica: The Croatian government halted the offensive.
September Operation Neretva '93: ARBiH forces attack the HVO in Herzegovina and central Bosnia.
9 September Operation Medak Pocket: Croatian forces launched a southeastward offensive against Krajina towards the village of Medak.
17 September Operation Medak Pocket: Croatia negotiated a ceasefire under international pressure.
1994 23 February Croat-Bosniak War: The war was effectively ended with a ceasefire.
18 March Croat-Bosniak War: The Washington Agreement was signed, establishing the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina within Bosnia and Herzegovina.
29 November Operation Winter '94: Croatian forces launched an offensive into western Bosnia and Herzegovina.
24 December Operation Winter '94: The offensive ended to Croatian territorial advantage.
1995 1 May Operation Flash: The Croatian Army launched an offensive which would reconquer the territory of the former Western Slavonia in Krajina.
2 May Zagreb rocket attacks: A two-day series of rocket attacks by Serb forces on Zagreb began which would kill seven civilians.
3 May Operation Flash: The offensive came to a successful conclusion.
25 July Operation Summer '95: Croatian forces launched a northward offensive from Bosnia and Herzegovina against Krajina forces.
30 July Operation Summer '95: The operation ended to Croatian territorial advantage.
4 August Operation Storm: One hundred and fifty thousand Croatian soldiers launched an offensive across a three hundred-mile front into Krajina.
9 August Operation Storm: The operation concluded with the surrender of Krajina forces at Vojni?.
8 September Operation Mistral 2: Croatian and Bosnia and Herzegovina forces attacked Republika Srpska forces in western Bosnia and Herzegovina.
15 September Operation Mistral: The battle ended in a Republika Srpska defeat.
29 October Croatian parliamentary election, 1995: The HDZ won a majority of seats in the Sabor.
7 November Zlatko Mate?a of the HDZ was elected Prime Minister.
12 November The Erdut Agreement was signed by representatives of Croatia and Krajina, establishing a Joint Council of Municipalities in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia (1995-1998), which would guarantee Serb rights under the protection of the United Nations Transitional Authority for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES) and later under Croatian sovereignty.[]
14 December Bosnian War: The Dayton Agreement was signed, establishing Bosnia and Herzegovina as an indivisible federation, with an alternating presidency, of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska.
1996 15 January The UNTAES mission began.
1997 15 June Croatian presidential election, 1997: Tu?man was reelected with 61% of the vote.
1998 15 January The UNTAES mission ended.
1999 26 November Tu?man was declared incapacitated due to illness. Speaker of the Croatian Parliament Vlatko Pavleti? became acting president.
10 December Tu?man died of cancer.
2000 3 January Croatian parliamentary election, 2000: The Social Democratic Party of Croatia (SDP) won a plurality of seats in the Sabor.
24 January Croatian presidential election, 2000: Mesi?, running with the Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats (HNS), and Dra?en Budi?a of the Croatian Social Liberal Party (HSLS) qualified for the second round.
27 January Ivica Ra?an of the SDP was elected Prime Minister, with the HSLS joining the SDP in coalition.
2 February Zlatko Tom?i? of the HSS was elected Speaker of the Croatian Parliament, replacing Pavleti? in that role and as acting president.
7 February Croatian presidential election, 2000: Mesi? won with 56% of the vote.

21st century

Year Date Event
2001 The Chamber of Counties was abolished by Constitutional amendment.
2003 23 November Croatian parliamentary election, 2003: The HDZ won a plurality of seats in the Sabor.
23 December Ivo Sanader of the HDZ was confirmed Prime Minister by the Sabor, with the Croatian Party of Pensioners (HSU) and Independent Democratic Serb Party (SDSS) joining the HDZ in coalition.
2005 2 January Croatian presidential election, 2005: Mesi?, running as an independent, and Jadranka Kosor of the HDZ qualified for the second round.
16 January Croatian presidential election, 2005: Mesi? was reelected with 66% of the vote.
2007 25 November Croatian parliamentary election, 2007: The HDZ maintained its plurality in the Sabor.
Sanader was again confirmed Prime Minister, with the HSS and HSLS now supporting his candidacy.
2009 1 July Sanader resigned. Deputy Prime Minister Kosor became Prime Minister.
3 July 2009 flu pandemic in Croatia. First case confirmed with its origin from Australia. 526 people were infected and 22 people died from the Swine Flu.
27 December Croatian presidential election, 2009-2010: Ivo Josipovi? of the SDP and the independent Milan Bandi? qualified for the second round.
2010 10 January Croatian presidential election, 2009-2010: Josipovi? won with 60% of the vote.
2011 4 December Croatian parliamentary election, 2011: The SDP won a plurality of seats in the Sabor.
2013 1 July Croatia becomes the 28th member state of the European Union.
2015 11 January 2014-15 Croatian presidential election: Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? was voted to be the president of Croatia with 50,74% of the vote.,[36] becoming Croatia's first female president.[37][Note 1]
2015 8 November Croatian parliamentary election, 2015: The Patriotic Coalition won a plurality of seats in the Sabor, with Croatia is Growing coalition coming second and MOST third.
2019-20 22 December-5 January 2019-20 Croatian presidential election was held. Zoran Milanovi? (SDP) wins with over 52% popular vote against Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? (HDZ)
2020 25 February-Present 2020 coronavirus outbreak in Croatia. Currently there over 210 cases of COVID-19 confirmed.
2020 22 March 2020 2020 Zagreb earthquake. At 6:24 AM, an 5.4 magnitude earthquake hit Zagreb and killed 1 teenager from the falling bricks. Its shock traveled few hundred kilometers.

Map Timeline

Map Date Name Capital Flag
Map of the Byzantine Empire at AD 555.
7th century Byzantine Empire Constantinople
Simple Labarum.svg
Duchy of Croatia at 850
7th century-925 Duchy of Croatia No permanent capital
HRV Central Croatia COA.svg
Map of the Kingdom of Croatia
925-1102 Kingdom of Croatia No permanent capital
Flag of the Kingdom of Croatia (925).svg
Map of the Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia in 1260.
1102-1526 Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia.

(Croatia in union with Hungary)

No permanent capital
Flag of Croatia (Early 16th century-1526) (Border).svg
Map of the Kingdom of Croatia (red), the Kingdom of Dalmatia (yellow), and the Military Frontier (orange).
(Shown in Red)
1526-1868 Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg) No permanent capital
Flag of the Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg).
Map of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (red) and the Kingdom of Dalmatia (yellow) circa 1885.
(Shown in Red)
1868-1918 Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia Zagreb
Flag of Croatia-Slavonia.
Map of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.
29 Oct 1918-1 Dec 1918 State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs Zagreb
Flag of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.
Map of the Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.
1918-1929 Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs Belgrade
Flag of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
Map of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1930.
1929-1941 Kingdom of Yugoslavia Belgrade
Flag of Yugoslavia.
Map of the Independent State of Croatia in 1943.
1941-1945 Independent State of Croatia Zagreb
Flag of the Independent State of Croatia.
Map of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.
1945-1963 Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia Belgrade
Flag of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.
Map of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1989.
1963-1991 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Belgrade
Flag of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Map of Croatia.
1991-Now Republic of Croatia Zagreb
Flag of Croatia.

See also

Cities in Croatia


  1. ^ Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio, ed. Gy. Moravcsik, trans. R.J.H. Jenkins, rev. ed., Washington, Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, 1967.
  2. ^ Dzino, Danijel (2010). Becoming Slav, Becoming Croat: Identity Transformations in Post-Roman and Early Medieval Dalmatia. Brill. p. 183. ISBN 9789004186460.
  3. ^ Royal Frankish Annales Annales Regni Francorum ed. G. H. Pertz. Monumenta Germanicae Historica, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum 6, (Hannover 1895) for the years 819-822.
  4. ^ a b Norwich, John Julius. A History of Venice. Alfred A. Knopf: New York, 1982.
  5. ^ Fine, John Van Antwerp (p.257): "The early medieval Balkans: a critical survey from the sixth to the late 12th century" University of Michigan Press; ISBN 0-472-08149-7/ISBN 978-0-472-08149-3
  6. ^ H.T. Norris (1994). Islam in the Balkans, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers; ISBN 1-85065-167-1
  7. ^ Stjepan Antoljak, Pregled hrvatske povijesti, Split 1993., str. 43.
  8. ^ Croatian History, geocities.com; accessed 8 March 2016.
  9. ^ a b c Klai? V., Povijest Hrvata, Knjiga Prva, Druga, Tre?a, ?etvrta i Peta Zagreb 1982. (in Croatian)
  10. ^ Op?a enciklopedija JLZ. Yugoslavian Lexicographical Institute. Zagreb. 1982.
  11. ^ Hrvatski leksikon (1996-1997) (in Croatian)
  12. ^ Frederick Bernard Singleton (1985). "A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples", Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-27485-0
  13. ^ a b ...audivit de Cressimiro Chroatorum principe quod dolo necari fecisset Goislavum fratrem suum misso apocrisario Mainardo...
  14. ^ Stjepan II (1089 - 1091) royalcroatia
  15. ^ Petar Svacic (c.1091- 1097) royalcroatia
  16. ^ "Croatia (History)". Encarta. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009.
  17. ^ "Croatia (History)". Britannica.
  18. ^ Fine, John Van Antwerp: "The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late 12th century to the Ottoman Conquest", University of Michigan Press; ISBN 0-472-08260-4
  19. ^ "750th Anniversary of the Golden Bull Granted by Bela I". Croatian Post. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2013.
  20. ^ M. ?a?i? (17 November 1998). ""Zlatna bula" - temelj razvoja Zagreba kroz stolje?a". Vjesnik (in Croatian). Zagreb. Archived from the original on 4 January 2009.
  21. ^ a b ?ubi?i bribirski do gubitka nasljedne banske ?asti (1322.) Damir Karbi? (in Croatian)
  22. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 April 2009. Retrieved 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ Kri?evci Bloody Assembly krizevci.eu
  24. ^ Kingdom of Croatia AD 925 - 1918 European Kingdoms
  25. ^ "History: 1301 to 1526 AD". Zum.de. Retrieved 2010.
  26. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P. & Davorka Mati?. Democratic Transition in Croatia: Value Transformation, Education & Media, pg. xii
  27. ^ Battle of Krbava field, crohis.com; accessed 8 March 2016.(in Croatian)
  28. ^ a b "R.W. SETON -WATSON:The southern Slav question and the Habsburg Monarchy, page 18". Retrieved 2010.
  29. ^ Turnbull, Stephen. The Ottoman Empire 1326-1699. New York: Osprey, 2003. 57
  30. ^ Moa?anin, Nenad: Some Problems of Interpretation of Turkish Sources concerning the Battle of Sisak in 1593 Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. In: Nazor, Ante, et al.(ed.), Sisa?ka bitka 1593, "Proceedings of the Meeting from June 18-June 19, 1993". Zagreb-Sisak 1994, pp. 125-30.
  31. ^ "Croatian post Inc". Posta.hr. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 2010.
  32. ^ "Varazdin - Historic Nucleus and Old Town (the Castle) - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2010.
  33. ^ "Zahtijevanja naroda" Hrvatski sabor (in Croatian)
  34. ^ "Nagodba". Britannica.
  35. ^ Bethell, Nicholas (1974). The Last Secret. London, UK.
  36. ^ Potpuni rezultati izbora za predsjednika Republike Hrvatske. 18 January 2015. (in Croatian). Archived 24 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ Croatians Elect Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovic as Their First Female President. The New York Times

Further reading


  1. ^ Not counting Ema Derossi-Bjelajac who, as President of the Presidency of Croatia served as the first female head of state of SR Croatia.

External links

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