3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||260.50 g/mol (anhydrous) |
350.60 g/mol (pentahydrate)
|Appearance||Colorless to slightly yellow fuming liquid|
|Density||2.226 g/cm3 (anhydrous) |
2.04 g/cm3 (pentahydrate)
|Melting point|| -34.07 °C (-29.33 °F; 239.08 K) (anhydrous) |
56 °C (133 °F; 329 K) (pentahydrate)
|Boiling point||114.15 °C (237.47 °F; 387.30 K)|
|hydrolysis,very hygroscopic (anhydrous) |
very soluble (pentahydrate)
|Solubility||soluble in alcohol, benzene, toluene, chloroform, acetone, kerosene, CCl4, methanol, gasoline, CS2|
|Vapor pressure||2.4 kPa|
Refractive index (nD)
|Safety data sheet||ICSC 0953|
|R-phrases (outdated)||R34, R52/53|
|S-phrases (outdated)||(S1/2), S7/8, S26, S45, S61|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Tin(IV) chloride, also known as tin tetrachloride or stannic chloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula SnCl4. It is a colorless hygroscopic liquid, which fumes on contact with air. It is used as a precursor to other tin compounds. It was first discovered by Andreas Libavius (1550-1616) and was known as spiritus fumans libavii.
Anhydrous tin(IV) chloride solidifies at -33 °C to give monoclinic crystals with the P21/c space group. It is isostructural with SnBr4. The molecules adopt near-perfect tetrahedral symmetry with average Sn-Cl distances of 227.9(3) pm.
Several hydrates of tin tetrachloride are known. The pentahydrate, SnCl4·5H2O was formerly known as butter of tin. They all consist of [SnCl4(H2O)2] molecules together with varying amounts of water of crystallization. The additional water molecules link together the molecules of [SnCl4(H2O)2] through hydrogen bonds. Although the pentahydrate is the most common hydrate, lower hydrates have also been characterised.
Anhydrous tin(IV) chloride reacts with tetraorganotin compounds in redistribution reactions:
These organotin halides are more useful than the tetraorganotin derivatives.
Although a specialized application, SnCl4 is used in Friedel-Crafts reactions as a Lewis acid catalyst for alkylation and cyclisation. Stannic chloride is used in chemical reactions with fuming (90%) nitric acid for the selective nitration of activated aromatic rings in the presence of inactivated ones.
The main application of SnCl4 is as a precursor to organotin compounds, which are used as catalysts and polymer stabilizers. It can be used in a sol-gel process to prepare SnO2 coatings (for example for toughening glass); nanocrystals of SnO2 can be produced by refinements of this method.
Stannic chloride was used as a chemical weapon in World War I, as it formed an irritating (but non-deadly) dense smoke on contact with air: it was substituted for by a mixture of silicon tetrachloride and titanium tetrachloride near the end of the war due to shortages of tin.