Torre Valley Dialect
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Torre Valley Dialect

The Torre Valley dialect or Ter Valley dialect (tersko nare?je,[1] terina[2]) is the westernmost[3] and the most Romanized Slovene dialect[4] and one of its most archaic and typologically interesting dialects.[5] It is spoken mostly in the Torre Valley in the Province of Udine in Italy, in the northern part of the historical region known as Venetian Slovenia, and in some villages in western Slovenia. It belongs to the Littoral dialect group.[6][7] Historically, it included the village of Pers (Slovene: Breg or Brieh), the westernmost ethnically Slovene village.[8][9]

The dialect was written already in the Cividale manuscript in 1479, but was later not used in written form.[6] Nowadays, because of the lack of language policy and Italianization, the dialect has a very reduced number of speakers and is threatened with extinction.[6] The Italian municipalities of Taipana and Lusevera and the village of Breginj in Slovenia are the only areas where the dialect is still maintained. In 2009, a dictionary of the Torre Valley dialect was published, based on material collected mainly at the end of the 19th century, but also in the 20th century.[10]

Geographical extension

The Torre Valley dialect is spoken in the mountainous area of eastern Friuli, along the upper course of the Torre River to west of the Natisone River, in the historical region known as Venetian Slovenia. It is located south of the Resian and So?a dialect, and west of the Natisone Valley dialect. To the east, it is bordered by Friulian.

Most of the dialect's territory is in Italy, except for the area around Breginj and Livek in Slovenia.[11]

Phonological and morphological characteristics

The Torre Valley dialect is quite variegated because its territory covers rugged terrain. It has pitch accent, non-retracted accents (in comparison to Standard Slovene) on final syllables (e.g., wad? 'water'), the phonological development of soft l > j and g > ?, and preservation of soft n and ?. The vocabulary has many Friulian loanwords.[11]

References

  1. ^ Smole, Vera. 1998. "Slovenska nare?ja." Enciklopedija Slovenije vol. 12, pp. 1-5. Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, p. 2.
  2. ^ ?ekli, Matej. 2004. "Jezik, knji?ni jezik, pokrajinski oz. krajevni knji?ni jezik: Genetskojezikoslovni in dru?benostnojezikoslovni pristop k ?lenjenju jezikovne stvarnosti (na primeru slovenine)." In Erika Kr?i?nik (ed.), Aktualizacija jezikovnozvrstne teorije na slovenskem. ?lenitev jezikovne resni?nosti. Ljubljana: Center za slovenistiko, pp. 41-58, p. 52.
  3. ^ Jakopin, Franc (1998). "Ocene - zapiski - poro?ila - gradivo: Krajevna in ledinska imena gornje Terske doline" [Reviews - Notes - Reports - Materials: Place Names and Cadastral Place Names of the Upper Torre Valley] (PDF). Slavisti?na revijaasopis za jezikoslovje in literarne vede [Journal of Slavic Linguistics: Journal for Linguistics and Literary Studies] (in Slovenian). Slavic Society of Slovenia. 46 (4): 389. ISSN 0350-6894.
  4. ^ Logar, Tine (1970). "Slovenski dialekti v zamejstvu". Prace Filologiczne. 20: 84. ISSN 0138-0567.
  5. ^ Pronk, Tijmen (2011). "Nare?je Ziljske doline in splo?noslovenski pomik cirkumfleksa" [The Gail Valley Dialect and the Common Slovene Advancement of the Falling Tone] (PDF). Slovenski jezik [Slovene Linguistic Studies] (in Slovenian) (8): 15. ISSN 1408-2616. COBISS 33260845.
  6. ^ a b c "Tersko nare?je". Primorski dnevnik (in Slovenian). 2010. ISSN 1124-6669.
  7. ^ "Karta slovenskih nare?ij z ve?jimi naselji" (PDF). Fran.si. In?titut za slovenski jezik Frana Ramov?a ZRC SAZU. Retrieved 2020.
  8. ^ Bandelj, Andrej, & Primo? Pipan. 2014. Videmsko. Ljubljana: Ljubljansko geografsko dru?tvo, p. 93.
  9. ^ Gori?ek, Gorazd. 2011. Med slovenskimi rojaki v Italiji. V gorah nad Tersko dolino. Planinski vestnik 116(5) (May): 41-44, p. 44.
  10. ^ Spinozzi Monai, Liliana (2009). Il Glossario del dialetto del Torre di Jan Baudouin de Courtenay [The Glossary of the Torre Dialect by Jan Baudouin de Courtenay] (in Italian and Slovenian). Consorzio Universitario del Friuli. St. Petersburg Branch of the Archive of the Russian Academy of Science. In?titut za slovenski jezik Frana Ramov?a, Znanstvenoraziskovalni center Slovenske akademije znanosti in umetnosti. ISBN 978-961-254-142-2.
  11. ^ a b Topori?i?, Jo?e. 1992. Enciklopedija slovenskega jezika. Ljubljana: Cankarjeva zalo?ba, p. 327.



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