Tropical Cyclone Naming
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Tropical Cyclone Naming

Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to simplify communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots (61 km/h; 38 mph), names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.

Before the formal start of naming, tropical cyclones were named after places, objects, or saints' feast days on which they occurred. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is generally given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named systems between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming weather systems subsequently fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Formal naming schemes and naming lists have subsequently been introduced and developed for the Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins, as well as the Australian region, Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean.

History

Tropical cyclone naming institutions
Basin Institution Area of responsibility
Northern Hemisphere
North Atlantic
Eastern Pacific
United States National Hurricane Center Equator northward, European and African Atlantic Coasts - 140°W [1]
Central Pacific United States Central Pacific Hurricane Center Equator northward, 140°W - 180° [1]
Western Pacific Japan Meteorological Agency
PAGASA (Unofficial)
Equator - 60°N, 180 - 100°E
5°N - 21°N, 115°E - 135°E
[2]
[3]
North Indian Ocean India Meteorological Department Equator northward, 100°E - 40°E [4]
Southern Hemisphere
South-West
Indian Ocean
Mauritius Meteorological Services
Météo Madagascar
Météo France Reunion
Equator - 40°S, 55°E - 90°E
Equator - 40°S, African Coast - 55°E
Equator - 40°S, African Coast - 90°E
[5]
Australian region Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics
Papua New Guinea National Weather Service
Australian Bureau of Meteorology
Equator - 10°S, 90°E - 141°E
Equator - 10°S, 141°E - 160°E
10°S - 40°S, 90°E - 160°E
[6]
Southern Pacific Fiji Meteorological Service
Meteorological Service of New Zealand
Equator - 25°S, 160°E - 120°W
25°S - 40°S, 160°E - 120°W
[6]
South Atlantic Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center (Unofficial) Equator - 35°S, Brazilian Coast - 20°W [7]

Before the formal start of naming, tropical cyclones were often named after places, objects, or saints' feast days on which they occurred.[8] The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is generally given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named systems between 1887 and 1907.[8] This system of naming weather systems subsequently fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific.[8] Formal naming schemes have subsequently been introduced for the North Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean.[8]

At present, tropical cyclones are officially named by one of eleven warning centers and retain their names throughout their lifetimes to facilitate the effective communication of forecasts and storm-related hazards to the general public.[9] This is especially important when multiple storms are occurring simultaneously in the same ocean basin.[9] Names are generally assigned in order from predetermined lists, once they produce one, three, or ten-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h (40 mph).[1][4][5] However, standards vary from basin to basin, with some systems named in the Western Pacific when they develop into tropical depressions or enter PAGASA's area of responsibility.[3] Within the Southern Hemisphere, systems must be characterized by a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the center before they are named.[5][6]

Any member of the World Meteorological Organization's hurricane, typhoon and tropical cyclone committees can request that the name of a tropical cyclone be retired or withdrawn from the various tropical cyclone naming lists.[1][2][6] A name is retired or withdrawn if a consensus or majority of members agree that the system has acquired a special notoriety, such as causing a large number of deaths and amounts of damage, impact, or for other special reasons.[1] A replacement name is then submitted to the committee concerned and voted upon, but these names can be rejected and replaced with another name for various reasons: these reasons include the spelling and pronunciation of the name, the similarity to the name of a recent tropical cyclone or on another list of names, and the length of the name for modern communication channels such as social media.[1][2][10] PAGASA also retires the names of significant tropical cyclones when they have caused at least ?1 billion in damage or have caused at least 300 deaths.[11]

North Atlantic Ocean

Hurricane Laura near peak intensity while approaching Louisiana in August 2020.

Within the North Atlantic Basin, tropical or subtropical storms are named by the United States National Hurricane Center (NHC/RSMC Miami), when they are judged to have 1-minute sustained winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h).[1] The name selected comes from one of six rotating alphabetic lists of twenty-one names, that are maintained by the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) RA IV Hurricane Committee.[1] These lists skip the letters Q, U, X, Y and Z, rotate from year to year and alternate between male and female names.[1] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next meeting of the Hurricane Committee.[1]

Until 2021, if all of the names on the annual name list were used, additional tropical or subtropical storms would be named with Greek letters. In March 2021, the WMO announced any additional storms will receive a name from an auxiliary list, to avoid confusion caused by the Greek letter names.[12]

List of Atlantic tropical cyclone names
2021
Names Ana Bill Claudette Danny Elsa Fred Grace Henri Ida Julian Kate
Larry Mindy Nicholas Odette Peter Rose Sam Teresa Victor Wanda
2022
Names Alex Bonnie Colin Danielle Earl Fiona Gaston Hermine Ian Julia Karl
Lisa Martin Nicole Owen Paula Richard Shary Tobias Virginie Walter
2023
Names Arlene Bret Cindy Don Emily Franklin Gert Harold Idalia Jose Katia
Lee Margot Nigel Ophelia Philippe Rina Sean Tammy Vince Whitney
2024
Names Alberto Beryl Chris Debby Ernesto Francine Gordon Helene Isaac Joyce Kirk
Leslie Milton Nadine Oscar Patty Rafael Sara Tony Valerie William
2025
Names Andrea Barry Chantal Dexter Erin Fernand Gabrielle Humberto Imelda Jerry Karen
Lorenzo Melissa Nestor Olga Pablo Rebekah Sebastien Tanya Van Wendy
2026
Names Arthur Bertha Cristobal Dolly Edouard Fay Gonzalo Hanna Isaias Josephine Kyle
Leah Marco Nana Omar Paulette Rene Sally Teddy Vicky Wilfred
Auxiliary List
Names Adria Braylen Caridad Deshawn Emery Foster Gemma Heath Isla Jacobus Kenzie
Lucio Makayla Nolan Orlanda Pax Ronin Sophie Tayshaun Viviana Will

Eastern Pacific Ocean

Hurricane Marie near peak intensity over the Eastern Pacific Ocean in October 2020

Within the Eastern Pacific Ocean, there are two warning centers that assign names to tropical cyclones on behalf of the World Meteorological Organization when they are judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h).[1] Tropical cyclones that intensify into tropical storms between the coast of Americas and 140°W are named by the National Hurricane Center (NHC/RSMC Miami), while tropical cyclones intensifying into tropical storms between 140°W and 180° are named by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC/RSMC Honolulu).[1] Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists and a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Hurricane Committee.[1]

North Pacific (east of 140°W)

When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical storm to the north of the Equator between the coastline of the Americas and 140°W, it will be named by the NHC. There are six lists of names which rotate every six years and begin with the letters A--Z used, skipping Q and U, with each name alternating between a male or a female name.[1] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next meeting of the Hurricane Committee.[1] If all of the names on the annual name list are used, any additional tropical or subtropical storms will receive a name from an auxiliary list.[12]

List of Eastern Pacific tropical cyclone names
2021
Names Andres Blanca Carlos Dolores Enrique Felicia Guillermo Hilda Ignacio Jimena Kevin Linda
Marty Nora Olaf Pamela Rick Sandra Terry Vivian Waldo Xina York Zelda
2022
Names Agatha Blas Celia Darby Estelle Frank Georgette Howard Ivette Javier Kay Lester
Madeline Newton Orlene Paine Roslyn Seymour Tina Virgil Winifred Xavier Yolanda Zeke
2023
Names Adrian Beatriz Calvin Dora Eugene Fernanda Greg Hilary Irwin Jova Kenneth Lidia
Max Norma Otis Pilar Ramon Selma Todd Veronica Wiley Xina York Zelda
2024
Names Aletta Bud Carlotta Daniel Emilia Fabio Gilma Hector Ileana John Kristy Lane
Miriam Norman Olivia Paul Rosa Sergio Tara Vicente Willa Xavier Yolanda Zeke
2025
Names Alvin Barbara Cosme Dalila Erick Flossie Gil Henriette Ivo Juliette Kiko Lorena
Mario Narda Octave Priscilla Raymond Sonia Tico Velma Wallis Xina York Zelda
2026
Names Amanda Boris Cristina Douglas Elida Fausto Genevieve Hernan Iselle Julio Karina Lowell
Marie Norbert Odalys Polo Rachel Simon Trudy Vance Winnie Xavier Yolanda Zeke
Auxiliary List
Names Aidan Bruna Carmelo Daniella Esteban Flor Gerardo Hedda Izzy Jacinta Kenito Luna
Marina Nancy Ovidio Pia Rey Skylar Teo Violeta Wilfredo Xinia Yariel Zoe

Central North Pacific Ocean (140°W to 180°)

Hurricane Walaka in October 2018, at peak intensity south of Johnston Atoll

When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical storm to the north of the Equator between 140°W and 180°, it is named by the CPHC.[1] Four lists of Hawaiian names are maintained by the World Meteorological Organization's hurricane committee, rotating without regard to year, with the first name for a new year being the next name in sequence that was not used the previous year.[1] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next Hurricane Committee meeting.[1]

List of Central Pacific tropical cyclone names
List Names
1 Akoni Ema Hone Iona Keli Lala Moke Nolo Olana Pena Ulana Wale
2 Aka Ekeka Hene Iolana Keoni Lino Mele Nona Oliwa Pama Upana Wene
3 Alika Ele Huko Iopa Kika Lana Maka Neki Omeka Pewa Unala Wali
4 Ana Ela Halola Iune Kilo Loke Malia Niala Oho Pali Ulika Walaka
References:[1]

Western Pacific Ocean (180° - 100°E)

Typhoon Surigae near peak intensity east of the Philippines in April 2021.

Tropical cyclones that occur within the Northern Hemisphere between the anti-meridian and 100°E are officially named by the Japan Meteorological Agency when they become tropical storms.[2] However, PAGASA also names tropical cyclones that occur or develop into tropical depressions within their self-defined area of responsibility between 5°N-25°N and 115°E-135°E.[3] This often results in tropical cyclones in the region having two names.[3]

International names

Tropical cyclones within the Western Pacific are assigned international names by the Japan Meteorological Agency when they become a tropical storm with 10-minute sustained winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h).[2] The names are used sequentially without regard to year and are taken from five lists of names that were prepared by the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee, after each of the 14 members submitted 10 names in 1998.[2] The order of the names to be used was determined by placing the English name of the members in alphabetical order.[2] Members of the committee are allowed to request the retirement or replacement of a system's name if it causes extensive destruction or for other reasons such as number of deaths.[2]

Philippines

Typhoon Rolly (Goni) at peak intensity, just prior to landfall in the Philippines in October 2020.

Since 1963, PAGASA has independently operated its own naming scheme for tropical cyclones that occur within its own self-defined Philippine Area of Responsibility.[3][15] The names are taken from four different lists of 25 names and are assigned when a system moves into or develops into a tropical depression within PAGASA's jurisdiction.[3][15] The four lists of names are rotated every four years, with the names of significant tropical cyclones retired if they have caused at least ?1 billion in damage and/or at least 300 deaths within the Philippines;[15][16] replacements to retired names are taken from the agency's list of reserved names.[15] If the list of names for a given year are exhausted, names are taken from an auxiliary list, the first ten of which are published every year.[15]

List of Philippine region tropical cyclone names
2021
Main Auring Bising Crising Dante Emong Fabian Gorio Huaning Isang Jolina Kiko Lannie Maring
Nando Odette Paolo Quedan Ramil Salome Tino Uwan Verbena Wilma Yasmin Zoraida
Auxiliary Alamid Bruno Conching Dolor Ernie Florante Gerardo Hernan Isko Jerome
2022
Main Agaton Basyang Caloy Domeng Ester Florita Gardo Henry Inday Josie Karding Luis Maymay
Neneng Obet Paeng Queenie Rosal Samuel Tomas Umberto Venus Waldo Yayang Zeny
Auxiliary Agila Bagwis Chito Diego Elena Felino Gunding Harriet Indang Jessa
2023
Main Amang Betty Chedeng Dodong Egay Falcon Goring Hanna Ineng Jenny Kabayan Liwayway Marilyn
Nimfa Onyok Perla Quiel Ramon Sarah Tamaraw Ugong Viring Weng Yoyoy Zigzag
Auxiliary Abe Berto Charo Dado Estoy Felion Gening Herman Irma Jaime
2024
Main Aghon Butchoy Carina Dindo Enteng Ferdie Gener Helen Igme Julian Kristine Leon Marce
Nika Ofel Pepito Querubin Romina Siony Tonyo Upang Vicky Warren Yoyong Zosimo
Auxiliary Alakdan Baldo Clara Dencio Estong Felipe Gomer Heling Ismael Julio
References:[15]

North Indian Ocean (45°E - 100°E)

Cyclone Amphan near peak intensity over the Bay of Bengal in May 2020.

Within the North Indian Ocean between 45°E - 100°E, tropical cyclones are named by the India Meteorological Department (IMD/RSMC New Delhi) when they are judged to have intensified into cyclonic storms with 3-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h).[4] If a cyclonic storm moves into the basin from the Western Pacific, then it will keep its original name.[4] However, if the system weakens into a deep depression and subsequently reintensify after moving into the region then will be assigned a new name.[4] In May 2020, the naming of Cyclone Amphan exhausted the original list of names established in 2004.[4] A new list of names has been prepared and will be used in alphabetical order for storms after Amphan.[4][17]

List of Northern Indian Ocean tropical cyclone names (effective from 2020)
List Contributing nation
Bangladesh India Iran Maldives Myanmar Oman Pakistan Qatar Saudi Arabia Sri Lanka Thailand U.A.E. Yemen
1 Nisarga Gati Nivar Burevi Tauktae Yaas Gulab Shaheen Jawad Asani Sitrang Mandous Mocha
2 Biparjoy Tej Hamoon Midhili Michaung Remal Asna Dana Fengal Shakhti Montha Senyar Ditwah
3 Arnab Murasu Akvan Kaani Ngamann Sail Sahab Lulu Ghazeer Gigum Thianyot Afoor Diksam
4 Upakul Aag Sepand Odi Kyarthit Naseem Afshan Mouj Asif Gagana Bulan Nahhaam Sira
5 Barshon Vyom Booran Kenau Sapakyee Muzn Manahil Suhail Sidrah Verambha Phutala Quffal Bakhur
6 Rajani Jhar Anahita Endheri Wetwun Sadeem Shujana Sadaf Hareed Garjana Aiyara Daaman Ghwyzi
7 Nishith Probaho Azar Riyau Mwaihout Dima Parwaz Reem Faid Neeba Saming Deem Hawf
8 Urmi Neer Pooyan Guruva Kywe Manjour Zannata Rayhan Kaseer Ninnada Kraison Gargoor Balhaf
9 Meghala Prabhanjan Arsham Kurangi Pinku Rukam Sarsar Anbar Nakheel Viduli Matcha Khubb Brom
10 Samiron Ghurni Hengame Kuredhi Yinkaung Watad Badban Oud Haboob Ogha Mahingsa Degl Shuqra
11 Pratikul Ambud Savas Horangu Linyone Al-jarz Sarrab Bahar Bareq Salitha Phraewa Athmad Fartak
12 Sarobor Jaladhi Tahamtan Thundi Kyeekan Rabab Gulnar Seef Alreem Rivi Asuri Boom Darsah
13 Mahanisha Vega Toofan Faana Bautphat Raad Waseq Fanar Wabil Rudu Thara Saffar Samhah

South-West Indian Ocean (Africa - 90°E)

Cyclone Faraji over the South-West Indian Ocean in February 2021.

Within the South-West Indian Ocean in the Southern Hemisphere between Africa and 90°E, a tropical or subtropical disturbance is named when it is judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h).[5][18] This is defined as being when gales are either observed or estimated to be present near a significant portion of the system's center.[5] Systems are named in conjunction with Météo-France Reunion by either Météo Madagascar or the Mauritius Meteorological Service.[5] If a disturbance reaches the naming stage between Africa and 55°E, then Météo Madagascar names it; if it reaches the naming stage between 55°E and 90°E, then the Mauritius Meteorological Service names it.[5] The names are taken from three pre-determined lists of names, which rotate on a triennial basis, with any names that have been used automatically removed.[5] These names are then replaced by the WMO's RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee, with names submitted by member nations.[5]

List of South-West Indian Ocean tropical cyclone names
2020-21
Names Alicia Bongoyo Chalane Danilo Eloise Faraji Guambe Habana Iman Jobo Kanga Ludzi Melina
Nathan Onias Pelagie Quamar Rita Solani Tarik Urilia Vuyane Wagner Xusa Yarona Zacarias
2021-22
Names Ana Batsirai Cliff Damako Emnati Fezile Gombe Halima Issa Jasmine Karim Letlama Maipelo
Njazi Oscar Pamela Quentin Rajab Savana Themba Uyapo Viviane Walter Xangy Yemurai Zanele
2022-23[nb 6]
Names Ambali Belna Calvinia Diane Esami Francisco Gabekile Herold Irondro Jeruto Kundai Lisebo Michel
Nousra Olivier Pokera Quincy Rebaone Salama Tristan Ursula Violet Wilson Xila Yekela Zania
References:[18][19]

Australian region (90°E - 160°E)

Within the Australian region in the Southern Hemisphere between 90°E - 160°E, a tropical cyclone is named when observations or Dvorak intensity analysis indicate that a system has gale force or stronger winds near the center which are forecast to continue.[6] The Indonesian Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika names systems that develop between the Equator and 10°S and 90°E and 141°E, while Papua New Guinea's National Weather Service names systems that develop between the Equator and 10°S and 141°E and 160°E.[6] Outside of these areas, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology names systems that develop into tropical cyclones.[6] In order to enable local authorities and their communities in taking action to reduce the impact of a tropical cyclone, each of these warning centres reserve the right to name a system early if it has a high chance of being named.[6] If a name is assigned to a tropical cyclone that causes loss of life or significant damage and disruption to the way of life of a community, then the name assigned to that storm is retired from the list of names for the region.[6] A replacement name is then submitted to the next World Meteorological Organization's RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee meeting.[6]

Indonesia

If a system intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the Equator - 10°S and 90°E - 141°E, it will be named by the Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG/TCWC Jakarta).[6] Names are assigned in sequence from list A, while list B details names that will replace names on list A that are retired or removed for other reasons.[6]

List of Indonesian tropical cyclone names
List A
Anggrek Bakung Cempaka Dahlia Flamboyan Kenanga Lili Pisang Seroja Teratai
List B
Anggur Belimbing Duku Jambu Lengkeng Melati Nangka Pepaya Rambutan Sawo
References:[6][20]

Papua New Guinea

If a system intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the Equator - 10°S and 141°E - 160°E, then it will be named by Papua New Guinea National Weather Service (NWS, TCWC Port Moresby).[6] Names are assigned in sequence from list A and are automatically retired after being used regardless of any damage caused.[6] List B contains names that will replace names on list A that are retired or removed for other reasons.[6]

List of Papua New Guinea tropical cyclone names
List A
Alu Buri Dodo Emau Fere Hibu Ila Kama Lobu Maila
List B
Nou Obaha Paia Ranu Sabi Tau Ume Vali Wau Auram
References:[6]

Australia

Cyclone Harold at peak intensity in April 2020

When a system develops into a tropical cyclone below 10°S between 90°E and 160°E, then it will be named by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM).[6] The names are assigned in alphabetical order and used in rotating order without regard to year.[6]

List of Australian tropical cyclone names
List A
Names Anika Billy Charlotte Dominic[nb 7] Ellie Freddy Gabrielle Herman Ilsa Jasper Kirrily
Lincoln Megan Neville Olga Paul Robyn Sean Tasha Vince Zelia ------
List B
Names Anthony Bianca Courtney Dianne Errol Fina Grant Hayley Iggy Jenna Koji
Luana Mitchell Narelle Oran Peta Riordan Sandra Tim Victoria Zane ------
List C
Names Alessia Bruce Catherine Dylan Edna Fletcher Gillian Hadi Ivana Jack Kate
Laszlo Mingzhu Nathan Oriana Quincey Raquel Stan Tatiana Uriah Yvette ------
List D
Names Alfred Blanche Caleb Dara Ernie Frances Greg Hilda Irving Joyce Kelvin
Linda Marco Nora Owen Penny Riley Savannah Trung Verity Wallace ------
List E
Names Amber Blake Claudia Declan Esther Ferdinand Gretel Heath Imogen Joshua Kimi
Lucas Marian Niran Odette Paddy Ruby Seth Tiffany Vernon ------ -----
References:[6]

Southern Pacific Ocean (160°E - 120°W)

Cyclone Yasa at peak intensity while approaching Fiji in December 2020.

Within the Southern Pacific basin in the Southern Hemisphere between 160°E - 120°W, a tropical cyclone is named when observations or Dvorak intensity analysis indicate that a system has gale force or stronger winds near the centre which are forecast to continue.[6] The Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) names systems that are located between the Equator and 25°S, while the New Zealand MetService names systems (in conjunction with the FMS) that develop to the south of 25°S.[6] In order to enable local authorities and their communities in taking action to reduce the impact of a tropical cyclone, the FMS reserves the right to name a system early if it has a high chance of being named.[6] If a tropical cyclone causes loss of life or significant damage and disruption to the way of life of a community, then the name assigned to that cyclone is retired from the list of names for the region.[6] A replacement name is then submitted to the next World Meteorological Organization's RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee meeting.[6] The name of a tropical cyclone is determined by using Lists A -- D in order, without regard to the year before restarting with List A.[6] List E contains names that will replace names on A-D when needed.[6]

List of South Pacific tropical cyclone names
List A
Names Ana Bina Cody Dovi Eva Fili Gina Hale Irene Judy Kevin Lola Mal
Nat Osai Pita Rae Seru Tam Urmil Vaianu Wati Xavier Yani Zita
List B
Names Arthur Becky Chip Denia Elisa Fotu Glen Hettie Innis Julie Ken Lin Maciu
Nisha Orea Palu Rene Sarah Troy Uinita Vanessa Wano ------ Yvonne Zaka
List C
Names Alvin Bune Cyril Daphne Eden Florin Garry Haley Isa June Kofi Louise Mike
Niko Opeti Perry Reuben Solo Tuni Ulu Victor Wanita ------ Yates Zidane
List D
Names Amos Bart Crystal Dean Ella Fehi Garth Hola Iris Jo Kala Liua Mona
Neil Oma Pana Rita Samadiyo Tasi Uesi Vicky Wasi ------ Yasa Zazu
List E (Standby)
Names Aru Ben ------ ------ Emosi Feki Germaine Hart Ili Josese Kirio Lute Mata
Neta ------ ------ Rex ------ Temo Uila Velma Wane ------ ------ Zanna
References:[6]

South Atlantic Ocean

When a tropical or subtropical storm exists in the South Atlantic Ocean, the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center's Marine Meteorological Service names the system using a predetermined list of names. The names are assigned in alphabetical order and used in rotating order without regard to year.[7] The name "Kurumí" replaced "Kamby" in 2018 without the latter being used.

List of South Atlantic tropical cyclone names
Names Arani Bapo Cari Deni Eçaí Guará Iba Jaguar Kurumí Mani Oquira Potira Raoni Ubá Yakecan
References:[7]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The name Vongfong was retired from the 2020 Pacific typhoon season. It will be replaced in early 2022.[13]
  2. ^ The name Linfa was retired from the 2020 Pacific typhoon season. It will be replaced in early 2022.[13]
  3. ^ The name Molave was retired from the 2020 Pacific typhoon season. It will be replaced in early 2022.[13]
  4. ^ The name Goni was retired from the 2020 Pacific typhoon season. It will be replaced in early 2022.[13]
  5. ^ The name Vamco was retired from the 2020 Pacific typhoon season. It will be replaced in early 2022.[13]
  6. ^ The names Ambali through Jeruto were automatically removed from the naming lists during the 2019-20 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season. No replacement names have been chosen yet.
  7. ^ The name Dominic was retired after the 2008-09 Australian region cyclone season, however, a new name has yet to be announced.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s RA IV Hurricane Committee (2020). "9". Regional Association IV (North America, Central America and the Caribbean) Hurricane Operational Plan 2020 (Report No. TCP-30). World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i WMO/ESCP Typhoon Committee (2019). Typhoon Committee Operational Manual Meteorological Component 2019 (Report). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 1-7, 33-34. Retrieved 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Why and how storms get their names". GMA News. September 27, 2011. Retrieved 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea: 2019 (Report) (2019 ed.). World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee (September 16, 2016). Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-West Indian Ocean: 2016 (Report No. TCP-12). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 13-14. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 18, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (October 8, 2020). Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-East Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean 2020 (PDF) (Report). World Meteorological Organization. pp. I-4-II-9 (9-21). Retrieved 2020.
  7. ^ a b c "NORMAS DA AUTORIDADE MARÍTIMA PARA AS ATIVIDADES DE METEOROLOGIA MARÍTIMA NORMAM-19 1a REVISÃO" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Brazilian Navy. 2018. p. C-1-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 6, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d Dorst, Neal M (October 23, 2012). "They Called the Wind Mahina: The History of Naming Cyclones" (PPTX). Hurricane Research Division, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Slides 8-72.
  9. ^ a b Landsea, Christopher W; Dorst, Neal M (June 1, 2014). "Subject: Tropical Cyclone Names: B1) How are tropical cyclones named?". Tropical Cyclone Frequently Asked Question. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Hurricane Research Division. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015.
  10. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Names". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. November 10, 2014. Archived from the original on February 22, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  11. ^ "PAGASA replaces names of 2014 destructive typhoons" (Press release). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. February 5, 2015. Archived from the original on February 10, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  12. ^ a b "WMO Hurricane Committee retires tropical cyclone names and ends the use of Greek alphabet". World Meteorological Organization. March 17, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  13. ^ a b c d e "53rd Typhoon Committee" (PDF). www.typhooncommittee.org. Retrieved 2021.
  14. ^ RSMC Tokyo-Typhoon Center (March 24, 2018). "List of names for tropical cyclones adopted by the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee for the western North Pacific and the South China Sea (valid as of 2018): Names of tropical cyclones". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on December 12, 2009. Retrieved 2015.
  15. ^ a b c d e f "Philippine Tropical Cyclone Names". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original on January 30, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  16. ^ "PAGASA replaces Tropical Cyclone "Lando" to "Liwayway"" (Press release). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original on November 14, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  17. ^ "IMD Releases New List of Upcoming Cyclone Names Over North Indian Ocean | The Weather Channel - Articles from The Weather Channel | weather.com". The Weather Channel.
  18. ^ a b La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre (August 31, 2015). "How are the names chosen?". Météo-France. Archived from the original on July 21, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  19. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Naming". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 2016.
  20. ^ "Cyclone Names". Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved 2015.

External links


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