Twi
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Twi
Twi
Akan Kasa
Twi
EthnicityAsante people, Akuapem, Bono people
Native speakers
947,000 (2004) [1][2] (2015)[1][3][4]
Dialects
Official status
Official language in
Ashanti City-State and the Ashanti City-State capital Kumasi
Ghana (both dialects used in national status)
Regulated byAkan Orthography Committee
Language codes
tw Twi
twi
twi
Glottologakua1239
asan1239
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A man speaking Twi.

Twi (Akan: [ti]), also known as Akan kasa, or Akan-speak, is a dialect of the Akan language spoken in southern and central Ghana by several million people, mainly of the Akan people, the largest of the seventeen major ethnic groups in Ghana. Twi has about 17-18 million speakers in total, including second-language speakers; about 80% of the Ghanaian population speaks Twi as a first or second language.[5][3] Like other West-African languages, Twi is a tonal language.[6]

Twi is a common name for mutually intelligible former literary dialects of the Akan language, Fante, Bono, Asante, and Akuapem.[7][8][5] Akuapem, as the first Akan dialect to be used for Bible translation, has become the prestige dialect as a result.[9] It is also spoken by the people of southeastern Côte d'Ivoire.[10][11][12]

Etymology

The name "Twi" is derived from the name of a Bono king, Nana Baffuor Twi.[13]

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal voiced m ?m? n ?n? ? ?ny, n? ? ?ng, n?
labialized n? ?nw?
Stop voiced b ?b? d ?d? g ?g?
aspirated p? ?p? t? ?t? k? ?k?
labialized k? ?kw?
Affricate aspirated t ~ c?ç? ?ky?
voiced d ?dw? d ~ ?gy?
labialized t ?tw?
Fricative voiceless f ?f? s ?s? ç ?hy? h ?h?
labialized h? ?hw?
Approximant j ?y? w ?w?
Tap/Flap ? ?r? ? ?r?
Trill r ?r?
Lateral l ?l?

Vowels

Tone

Twi has at least 5 tones: high, mid, low, rising, falling.

Diphthongs

Twi contains the diphthongs /ao/, /e?/, /ei/, /ia/, /ie/, /o?/, /ue/, and /uo/.[14]

Orthography

Uppercase A B D E ? F G H I K L M N O ? P R S T U W Y
Lowercase a b d e ? f g h i k l m n o ? p r s t u w y

The letters C, J, V and Z are also used, but only in loanwords.[15]

Naming system

The Akan peoples use a common Akan (Ghana) naming system of giving the first name to a child, based on the day of the week that the child was born. Almost all the tribes and clans in Ghana have a similar custom.

Day Male name Female name
Dwoada (Monday) Kwadwo, Kojo Adwoa
Benada (Tuesday) Kwabena Abena
Wukuada (Wednesday) Kweku, Kwaku Akua
Yawoada (Thursday) Yaw Yaa
Fiada (Friday) Kofi Afia/Afua
Memeneda (Saturday) Kwame Ama
Kwasiada (Sunday) Akwasi, Kwasi, Kwesi Asi, Akosua, Esi

References

  1. ^ a b "Asante » Asante Twi (Less Commonly Taught Languages)". University of Michigan College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. University of Michigan.
  2. ^ "Asante - Asante Twi". ofm-tv.com.
  3. ^ a b "Asante » Asante Twi". ofm-tv.com.
  4. ^ Akan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  5. ^ a b Jane Garry, Carl R. Galvez Rubino, "Facts about the World's Languages: An Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages, Past and Present", H.W. Wilson, USA, 2001, page 8
  6. ^ "Map of tonal languages". wals.info.
  7. ^ Arhin, Kwame; Studies, University of Ghana Institute of African (1979). A Profile of Brong Kyempim: Essays on the Archaeology, History, Language and Politics of the Brong Peoples of Ghana. Afram.
  8. ^ Johann Gottlieb Christaller (1875). A Grammar of the Asante and Fante Language Called Tshi Chwee, Twi Based on the Akuapem Dialect ... Harvard University. Printed for the Basel evang. missionary society.
  9. ^ Ager, Simon. "Omniglot". Retrieved 2015.
  10. ^ "Akan". Ethnologue. Retrieved .
  11. ^ Christaller, Johann Gottlieb (1875). A Grammar of the Asante and Fante Language Called Tshi Chwee, Twi Based on the Akuapem Dialect with Reference to the Other (Akan and Fante) Dialects. Basel evang. missionary society.
  12. ^ Ofosu-Appiah, L. H. (1998). "Christaller, Johannes Gottlieb". Dictionary of African Christian Biography.
  13. ^ The Akan of Ghana: Their Ancient Beliefs. Faber & Faber. 1958.
  14. ^ "Akan languages, alphabet and pronunciation". www.omniglot.com. Retrieved .
  15. ^ "Language Guide". The African Linguists Network Blog. 2013-05-14. Retrieved .

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Twi
 



 



 
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