|City of U?ice|
Location of the city of U?ice within Serbia
|Region||?umadija and Western Serbia|
|o Mayor||Jelena Rakovi? Radivojevi? (SNS)|
|o Urban||41.10 km2 (15.87 sq mi)|
|o Administrative||667.00 km2 (257.53 sq mi)|
|Elevation||411 m (1,348 ft)|
|o Rank||14th in Serbia|
|o Urban density||1,500/km2 (3,800/sq mi)|
|o Administrative density||120/km2 (300/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|o Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||SRB|
U?ice (Serbian Cyrillic: , pronounced [û?it?se] ) is a city and the administrative centre of the Zlatibor District in western Serbia. It is located on the banks of the river ?etinja. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has a population of 59,747. The City municipality of U?ice (Serbian Cyrillic: ? ? , romanized: Gradska op?tina U?ice) is one of two city municipalities (with the City municipality of Sevojno) which constitute the City of U?ice. According to the 2011 census results, the municipality has 70,939 inhabitants.
The region surrounding U?ice was settled by Illyrians, specifically the Parthini and the Celtic-influenced Autariatae tribes. Their tombs are found throughout the region. In the 3rd century BC, the Scordisci featured prominently after the Gallic invasion of the Balkans. The region was conquered by the Roman Empire in 168 BC, and was organized into the province of Illyricum in 32-27 BC and, after 10 AD, the province of Dalmatia. The Roman municipium (town) of Capedunum existed here during Roman times; its name indicates a Celtic origin (dun, fortress), similar to Singidunum, the founding name of Serbia's capital, Belgrade.
The settlement of Slavs in the region has been recorded since the 520s, when Slavic tribes pillaged the Eastern Roman Empire; during Justinian I's rule (527-565), up to 100,000 Slavs raided areas far to the south of the city in Thessalonica. The region (Drina ?upanija) was part of the Vlastimirovi? dynasty when they established the medieval Principality of Serbia, the first Serb state. Across the Drina, in Bosnia, the army of ?aslav fought the invading Magyars in the 950s. The region was annexed by the Byzantine Empire after 969, becoming part of the Catepanate of Ras. Later, the area around the city became a part of the Theme of Sirmium.
The region may have been returned to Serbian hands in the 1040s during the revolt against the Eastern Roman Empire led by Stefan Vojislav, progenitor of the Vojislavljevi? dynasty. In 1083, brothers Vukan and Marko were appointed princes in Ra?ka. In 1091, Vukan became independent of Byzantine rule, creating the Grand Principality of Serbia, while Duklja (up until this, the most powerful Serbian principality, situated to the southwest) slowly crumbled, eventually coming under the rule of inner Serbia.
The Serbian Grand Principality remained in the hands of the Vukanovi? dynasty until another line of the same dynasty was set to rule by Manuel I Komnenos (r. 1143-1180). Zavida, thought to be a brother of Uro? II and Desa, fled after trying to acquire an appanage or the throne itself. Zavida's four sons divided the rule, each holding ?esti (parts): Stracimir, ?upan of West Morava, ruled the country surrounding U?ice.  Stefan Nemanja eventually wrestled rule from the other four sons[clarification needed] when he defeated Tihomir, Stracimir's brother, in 1171. Stracimir continued ruling in Nemanja's name.
When King Dragutin of house Nemanji? abdicated in favor of his brother Milutin, he retained control of U?ice region and was given the Ma?va region by the Hungarian king, from which he formed the Kingdom of Srem. After King Dragutin died, his lands were annexed to Serbia. The old Fortress on the hill was founded in the mid 14th century. After the death of Emperor Du?an the Mighty, in the period known as the 'fall of the Serbian Empire', U?ice came under the control of Vojislav Vojinovi?, a nobleman in the service of Emperor Uro? the Weak. When Vojislav died, his nephew Nikola Altomanovi? controlled the region. When Uro? died childless, the former Imperial provincial lords begin fighting each other. Serbian Autokrator Lazar Hrebeljanovi? and Tvrtko I of Bosnia defeated Nikola Altomanovi?, and divided his lands between themselves. Nikola was blinded in the fortress on the orders of Stefan Musi?. U?ice came under the control of Lazar, then the Serbian Despotate under his son Stefan Lazarevi?.
In 1941, after Nazi occupation, U?ice was liberated by the Yugoslav Partisans, who chose it as the capital of the Republic of U?ice. This republic was a short-lived military mini-state that existed in the autumn of 1941 in the western part of Nazi-occupied Serbia.
The Republic of U?ice comprised most of western Serbia, with a population of more than 300,000 people. It was located between the Skrape? river in the north, the river Drina in the west, the river Zapadna Morava in the east, and the Uvac river in the south.
Within the former Yugoslavia (established after the Second World War), U?ice was renamed 'Titovo U?ice' ( ). From 1992, following the collapse of the pro-communist administration, 'Titovo' (meaning Tito's) was removed, leaving the original city name U?ice. It was one of eight towns renamed Tito's town in Yugoslavia. Due to being 'Titove' and central-planning communist system, U?ice received significant amounts of investment in infrastructure and local factories, which made the city one of the most highly developed for its size in former Yugoslavia. Following the break-up of the region, all the towns dropped the 'Titove' title.
During the 1990s, U?ice's economy shrank rapidly due to war and instability in the region.
In 1999 the city was bombed multiple times during Operation Allied Force. The largest scale bombing occurred on May 6, 1999 when NATO forces bombed many roads and highways, the airport, civilian buildings and government buildings. After this, thousands of people turned out at the city's main square to protest the bombings and destruction of the city and killings of civilians.
U?ice lies 411 metres (1,348 feet) above sea level, on both sides of the river ?etinja. The city is completely surrounded by the Dinaric Alps. 25 kilometres (16 miles) south of the city is Zlatibor, a mountain region with a long tradition of tourism.
The Belgrade-Bar railway passes through U?ice and connects it with both the northern parts of Serbia and the Montenegrin coast. U?ice has a fairly developed transportation infrastructure, connected with the surrounding areas by state roads of the first order.
|Climate data for U?ice|
|Average high °C (°F)||3.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||-0.3
|Average low °C (°F)||-3.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||66
|Source: Climate-Data.org |
According to the 2011 census results, U?ice has a total population of 78,040 inhabitants.
The ethnic composition of the city:
The City of U?ice consists of two city municipalities: U?ice and Sevojno. In 2013, the city municipality of Sevojno, located 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) east of U?ice, was established. As of 2011 , it has 7,101 inhabitants of 78,040 which live in the City of U?ice.
U?ice has historically been a relatively well developed city. In 1981, U?ice's GDP per capita was 157% of the Yugoslav average. In 1990, U?ice had 17,000 manufacturing workers; as of 2018, the number of manufacturing workers is around 7,000. Among the large companies that did not survive the international sanctions of Serbia during the 1990s and did not survive the economic transition following the breakup of Yugoslavia are the textile manufacturers 'Froteks' and 'Desa Petronijevi?', the market chain 'Gradina', the printing company 'Dimitrije Tucovi?', the transport company 'Raketa', and other manufacturing companies like 'Fasau', 'Kotroman' and 'Tvrdi Metal'.
Regardless, the modern city has a developing textile, leather, machine and metal industry. Most companies have factories on the outskirts of the city due to good communication connections, given the close proximity of the main highway, railroad and airport. Ponikve Airport is currently under reconstruction, and as a result cargo airlines will mostly use it for transporting goods. The airport management confirmed interest in low cost, scheduled and chartered airlines.
As of 2018, the largest companies operating in the city of U?ice are Prvi Partizan (ammunition), Impol Seval Sevojno (aluminum mill), Valjaonica bakra Sevojno (copper mill), MPP Jedinstvo Sevojno (construction) and Putevi U?ice (construction).
The following table gives a preview of total number of registered people employed in legal entities per their core activity (as of 2019):
|Agriculture, forestry and fishing||128|
|Mining and quarrying||74|
|Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply||264|
|Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities||484|
|Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles||3,095|
|Transportation and storage||1,487|
|Accommodation and food services||1,093|
|Information and communication||370|
|Financial and insurance activities||420|
|Real estate activities||6|
|Professional, scientific and technical activities||768|
|Administrative and support service activities||560|
|Public administration and defense; compulsory social security||1,502|
|Human health and social work activities||2,370|
|Arts, entertainment and recreation||364|
|Other service activities||463|
|Individual agricultural workers||256|
The library and theatre are in the main square in the city centre. Also located in the area are newspaper agencies, radio and television stations and publishing companies. The city gallery is in the lowlands of Pa?inovac, the oldest area of the city. The national museum displays cultural and historical treasures of the city, and with its exhibitions, shows the centuries of rich U?ice history. It is located on the Eastern side of the main city street.
The Gymnasium of U?ice is one of the oldest secondary school institutions in Serbia. Aside from the gymnasium, there are also several other primary and secondary schools and faculties located in U?ice.
Milutin Uskokovi?, writer from U?ice, was described as the author of the first modern novel in Serbia.
The locals, U?icans (Serbian: ?, U?i?ani), have their own traditional costume, and folk music; the sound of which is transitional between the music of ?umadija (central Serbia) and Bosnia and Herzegovina. They speak a Neo-?tokavian U?ican dialect, originally with Ijekavian pronunciation.
Some distinctive buildings in U?ice are:
U?ice is turning into the regional media centre of western Serbia.
U?ice is twinned with: