U%C5%BEice
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U%C5%BEice
U?ice

City of U?ice
Uzice pan.jpg
Drvengrad.jpg
Uzice 23.avgust 2009 004.jpg
Zgrada hotela Palas.jpg
?   1.JPG
Kadinja?a spomen park.jpg
U?ice, Serbia - panoramio (1).jpg
Leva obala ?etinje - panoramio.jpg
From top: Panorama of U?ice, Museum village Drvengrad, Church of St. George, Hotel Palas, U?ice National theatre, Kadinja?a Memorial complex, Old fortress near U?ice, River ?etinja
Coat of arms of U?ice
Coat of arms
Location of the city of U?ice within Serbia
Location of the city of U?ice within Serbia
Coordinates: 43°51?N 19°51?E / 43.850°N 19.850°E / 43.850; 19.850Coordinates: 43°51?N 19°51?E / 43.850°N 19.850°E / 43.850; 19.850
Country Serbia
Region?umadija and Western Serbia
DistrictZlatibor
Municipalities2
Settlements38
Government
 o MayorJelena Rakovi? Radivojevi? (SNS)
Area
 o Urban41.10 km2 (15.87 sq mi)
 o Administrative667.00 km2 (257.53 sq mi)
Elevation
411 m (1,348 ft)
Population
(2011 census)[2]
 o Rank14th in Serbia
 o Urban
59,747
 o Urban density1,500/km2 (3,800/sq mi)
 o Administrative
78,040
 o Administrative density120/km2 (300/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 o Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
31000
Area code+381(0)31
ISO 3166 codeSRB
Car platesUE
Websitewww.uzice.rs

U?ice (Serbian Cyrillic: , pronounced [û?it?se] ) is a city and the administrative centre of the Zlatibor District in western Serbia. It is located on the banks of the river ?etinja. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has a population of 59,747. The City municipality of U?ice (Serbian Cyrillic: ? ? , romanizedGradska op?tina U?ice) is one of two city municipalities (with the City municipality of Sevojno) which constitute the City of U?ice. According to the 2011 census results, the municipality has 70,939 inhabitants.[3][2]

History

Ancient era

The region surrounding U?ice was settled by Illyrians, specifically the Parthini and the Celtic-influenced Autariatae tribes. Their tombs are found throughout the region. In the 3rd century BC, the Scordisci featured prominently after the Gallic invasion of the Balkans. The region was conquered by the Roman Empire in 168 BC, and was organized into the province of Illyricum in 32-27 BC and, after 10 AD, the province of Dalmatia. The Roman municipium (town) of Capedunum existed here during Roman times; its name indicates a Celtic origin (dun, fortress),[4] similar to Singidunum, the founding name of Serbia's capital, Belgrade.

Middle Ages

The settlement of Slavs in the region has been recorded since the 520s, when Slavic tribes pillaged the Eastern Roman Empire; during Justinian I's rule (527-565), up to 100,000 Slavs raided areas far to the south of the city in Thessalonica. The region (Drina ?upanija) was part of the Vlastimirovi? dynasty when they established the medieval Principality of Serbia, the first Serb state. Across the Drina, in Bosnia, the army of ?aslav fought the invading Magyars in the 950s. The region was annexed by the Byzantine Empire after 969, becoming part of the Catepanate of Ras. Later, the area around the city became a part of the Theme of Sirmium.

Stari Grad (Old town),
Castle fort built in the 1300s by Serbian nobleman Nikola Altomanovi?

The region may have been returned to Serbian hands in the 1040s during the revolt against the Eastern Roman Empire led by Stefan Vojislav, progenitor of the Vojislavljevi? dynasty. In 1083, brothers Vukan and Marko were appointed princes in Ra?ka. In 1091, Vukan became independent of Byzantine rule, creating the Grand Principality of Serbia, while Duklja (up until this, the most powerful Serbian principality, situated to the southwest) slowly crumbled, eventually coming under the rule of inner Serbia.

The Serbian Grand Principality remained in the hands of the Vukanovi? dynasty until another line of the same dynasty was set to rule by Manuel I Komnenos (r. 1143-1180). Zavida, thought to be a brother of Uro? II and Desa, fled after trying to acquire an appanage or the throne itself. Zavida's four sons divided the rule, each holding ?esti (parts): Stracimir, ?upan of West Morava, ruled the country surrounding U?ice. [5] Stefan Nemanja eventually wrestled rule from the other four sons[clarification needed] when he defeated Tihomir, Stracimir's brother, in 1171. Stracimir continued ruling in Nemanja's name.

When King Dragutin of house Nemanji? abdicated in favor of his brother Milutin, he retained control of U?ice region and was given the Ma?va region by the Hungarian king, from which he formed the Kingdom of Srem. After King Dragutin died, his lands were annexed to Serbia. The old Fortress on the hill was founded in the mid 14th century. After the death of Emperor Du?an the Mighty, in the period known as the 'fall of the Serbian Empire', U?ice came under the control of Vojislav Vojinovi?, a nobleman in the service of Emperor Uro? the Weak. When Vojislav died, his nephew Nikola Altomanovi? controlled the region. When Uro? died childless, the former Imperial provincial lords begin fighting each other. Serbian Autokrator Lazar Hrebeljanovi? and Tvrtko I of Bosnia defeated Nikola Altomanovi?, and divided his lands between themselves. Nikola was blinded in the fortress on the orders of Stefan Musi?. U?ice came under the control of Lazar, then the Serbian Despotate under his son Stefan Lazarevi?.

Ottoman period

U?ice fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1463, and was part of the Sanjak of Smederevo until 1807, when it was liberated by the Serbian revolutionaries during the First Serbian Uprising.

Modern Serbia

U?ice in the 1890s.

U?ice was the first town in Serbia with a hydroelectric power plant producing alternating current. It was built on the ?etinja river in 1900.

World War II

Monument to fallen Partisans, Kadinja?a.

In 1941, after Nazi occupation, U?ice was liberated by the Yugoslav Partisans, who chose it as the capital of the Republic of U?ice. This republic was a short-lived military mini-state that existed in the autumn of 1941 in the western part of Nazi-occupied Serbia.

The Republic of U?ice comprised most of western Serbia, with a population of more than 300,000 people. It was located between the Skrape? river in the north, the river Drina in the west, the river Zapadna Morava in the east, and the Uvac river in the south.

In November 1941, the German army re-occupied this territory, and the majority of Partisan forces escaped to Bosnia, Ra?ka and Montenegro.

Yugoslav era

The train station in the 1970s

Within the former Yugoslavia (established after the Second World War), U?ice was renamed 'Titovo U?ice' ( ). From 1992, following the collapse of the pro-communist administration, 'Titovo' (meaning Tito's) was removed, leaving the original city name U?ice. It was one of eight towns renamed Tito's town in Yugoslavia. Due to being 'Titove' and central-planning communist system, U?ice received significant amounts of investment in infrastructure and local factories, which made the city one of the most highly developed for its size in former Yugoslavia. Following the break-up of the region, all the towns dropped the 'Titove' title.

1990s

During the 1990s, U?ice's economy shrank rapidly due to war and instability in the region.

In 1999 the city was bombed multiple times during Operation Allied Force. The largest scale bombing occurred on May 6, 1999 when NATO forces bombed many roads and highways, the airport, civilian buildings and government buildings.[6] After this, thousands of people turned out at the city's main square to protest the bombings and destruction of the city and killings of civilians.

Geography

Mountain Zlatibor

U?ice lies 411 metres (1,348 feet) above sea level, on both sides of the river ?etinja. The city is completely surrounded by the Dinaric Alps. 25 kilometres (16 miles) south of the city is Zlatibor, a mountain region with a long tradition of tourism.

West of the city are the mountain Tara as well as its western extension, Zvijezda mountain. Together, they mark Tara National Park, which has an area of 220 square kilometres (85 square miles).

The Belgrade-Bar railway passes through U?ice and connects it with both the northern parts of Serbia and the Montenegrin coast. U?ice has a fairly developed transportation infrastructure, connected with the surrounding areas by state roads of the first order.

Climate

U?ice has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfb) approaching an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb).

Climate data for U?ice
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 3.4
(38.1)
6.3
(43.3)
11.6
(52.9)
15.3
(59.5)
20.1
(68.2)
23.6
(74.5)
25.8
(78.4)
26.1
(79.0)
22.6
(72.7)
17.2
(63.0)
9.6
(49.3)
5.0
(41.0)
15.5
(60.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) -0.3
(31.5)
2.2
(36.0)
6.5
(43.7)
10.0
(50.0)
14.6
(58.3)
18.1
(64.6)
19.9
(67.8)
19.9
(67.8)
16.6
(61.9)
11.8
(53.2)
5.7
(42.3)
1.7
(35.1)
10.6
(51.0)
Average low °C (°F) -3.9
(25.0)
-1.8
(28.8)
1.4
(34.5)
4.7
(40.5)
9.2
(48.6)
12.6
(54.7)
14.1
(57.4)
13.8
(56.8)
10.6
(51.1)
6.5
(43.7)
1.8
(35.2)
-1.6
(29.1)
5.6
(42.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 66
(2.6)
61
(2.4)
60
(2.4)
72
(2.8)
92
(3.6)
91
(3.6)
80
(3.1)
66
(2.6)
71
(2.8)
72
(2.8)
85
(3.3)
80
(3.1)
896
(35.1)
Source: Climate-Data.org [7]

Demographics

According to the 2011 census results, U?ice has a total population of 78,040 inhabitants.

Ethnic groups

The ethnic composition of the city:[9]

Ethnic group Population %
Serbs 76,089 97.50%
Montenegrins 144 0.18%
Yugoslavs 80 0.10%
Romani 70 0.09%
Croats 69 0.09%
Others 1,588 2.03%
Total 78,040

Municipalities and settlements

City municipalities

The City of U?ice consists of two city municipalities: U?ice and Sevojno. In 2013, the city municipality of Sevojno, located 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) east of U?ice, was established.[10] As of 2011, it has 7,101 inhabitants of 78,040 which live in the City of U?ice.

Settlements

List of the settlements in the City of U?ice (population per 2011 census given in brackets):[2]

Economy

Power plant on the River ?etinja was founded by the king Alexander I of Serbia in 1899[11]

U?ice has historically been a relatively well developed city. In 1981, U?ice's GDP per capita was 157% of the Yugoslav average.[12] In 1990, U?ice had 17,000 manufacturing workers; as of 2018, the number of manufacturing workers is around 7,000.[13][14] Among the large companies that did not survive the international sanctions of Serbia during the 1990s and did not survive the economic transition following the breakup of Yugoslavia are the textile manufacturers 'Froteks' and 'Desa Petronijevi?', the market chain 'Gradina', the printing company 'Dimitrije Tucovi?', the transport company 'Raketa', and other manufacturing companies like 'Fasau', 'Kotroman' and 'Tvrdi Metal'.[13]

Regardless, the modern city has a developing textile, leather, machine and metal industry. Most companies have factories on the outskirts of the city due to good communication connections, given the close proximity of the main highway, railroad and airport. Ponikve Airport is currently under reconstruction, and as a result cargo airlines will mostly use it for transporting goods. The airport management confirmed interest in low cost, scheduled and chartered airlines.

As of September 2017, U?ice has one of 14 free economic zones established in Serbia.[15]

As of 2018, the largest companies operating in the city of U?ice are Prvi Partizan (ammunition), Impol Seval Sevojno (aluminum mill), Valjaonica bakra Sevojno (copper mill), MPP Jedinstvo Sevojno (construction) and Putevi U?ice (construction).

The following table gives a preview of total number of registered people employed in legal entities per their core activity (as of 2019):[16]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 128
Mining and quarrying 74
Manufacturing 7,209
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 264
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 484
Construction 1,302
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 3,095
Transportation and storage 1,487
Accommodation and food services 1,093
Information and communication 370
Financial and insurance activities 420
Real estate activities 6
Professional, scientific and technical activities 768
Administrative and support service activities 560
Public administration and defense; compulsory social security 1,502
Education 1,401
Human health and social work activities 2,370
Arts, entertainment and recreation 364
Other service activities 463
Individual agricultural workers 256
Total 23,358

Society and culture

Map of the region where Zlakusa pottery is produced, which is included in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists
The house of Jokanovi?'s, traditional architecture from the middle 19th century
Building of the National theatre

The library and theatre are in the main square in the city centre. Also located in the area are newspaper agencies, radio and television stations and publishing companies. The city gallery is in the lowlands of Pa?inovac, the oldest area of the city. The national museum displays cultural and historical treasures of the city, and with its exhibitions, shows the centuries of rich U?ice history. It is located on the Eastern side of the main city street.

The Gymnasium of U?ice is one of the oldest secondary school institutions in Serbia. Aside from the gymnasium, there are also several other primary and secondary schools and faculties located in U?ice.

Milutin Uskokovi?, writer from U?ice, was described as the author of the first modern novel in Serbia.

The locals, U?icans (Serbian: ?, U?i?ani), have their own traditional costume, and folk music; the sound of which is transitional between the music of ?umadija (central Serbia) and Bosnia and Herzegovina. They speak a Neo-?tokavian U?ican dialect, originally with Ijekavian pronunciation.

Architecture

Some distinctive buildings in U?ice are:

Media

U?ice is turning into the regional media centre of western Serbia.

International relations

Twin towns / sister cities

U?ice is twinned with:

Notable people

Politicians
Sportspeople
Others

References

  1. ^ "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved .
  2. ^ a b c "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. p. 178. ISBN 978-86-6161-109-4. Retrieved .
  3. ^ " ? " (pdf). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 2019.
  4. ^ p. 340
  5. ^ p. 31
  6. ^ Warfacts.org.yu (1999). "(NATO Aggression) Civilian Infrastructure: Uzice". Archived from the original on 2007-12-04. Retrieved .
  7. ^ "Climate: U?ice, Serbia". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 2017.
  8. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 2017.
  9. ^ " , ? ? 2011. ? " (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Republi?ki zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 2016.
  10. ^ ? ? ? (PDF). graduzice.org (in Serbian). ? . Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  11. ^ "The old hydroelectrical power plant - ? " (in Serbian). Retrieved .
  12. ^ Radovinovi?, Radovan; Berti?, Ivan, eds. (1984). Atlas svijeta: Novi pogled na Zemlju (in Croatian) (3rd ed.). Zagreb: Sveu?ili?na naklada Liber.
  13. ^ a b Jankovi?, Nikola (17 June 2018). "Svetlo valjaonice u sumraku tranzicije". novosti.rs (in Serbian). Retrieved 2018.
  14. ^ "MUNICIPALITIES AND REGIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA, 2019" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. 25 December 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  15. ^ Mikavica, A. (3 September 2017). "Slobodne zone mamac za investitore". politika.rs (in Serbian). Retrieved 2019.
  16. ^ " ? , 2019. - ? -" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Statistical Office of Republic of Serbia. 31 January 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  17. ^ " ?, - ? " (in Serbian). Retrieved .

External links


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