Ultranationalism
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Ultranationalism

Ultranationalism is "extreme nationalism that promotes the interest of one state or people above all others", or simply "extreme devotion to one's own nation".[1][2] When combined with the notion of national rebirth, ultranationalism is a key foundation of fascism.[3] Some ultranationalist organisations have been designated as terrorist movements by certain nation states.[4]

According to Janusz Bugajski, "in its most extreme or developed forms, ultra-nationalism resembles fascism, marked by a xenophobic disdain of other nations, support for authoritarian political arrangements verging on totalitarianism, and a mythical emphasis on the 'organic unity' between a charismatic leader, an organizationally amorphous movement-type party, and the nation".[5]

Roger Griffin asserts that ultranationalism is essentially xenophobic and is known to legitimise itself "through deeply mythicized narratives of past cultural or political periods of historical greatness or of old scores to settle against alleged enemies". It can also draw on "vulgarized forms of physical anthropology, genetics, and eugenics to rationalize ideas of national superiority and destiny, of degeneracy and subhumanness".[6]

Ultranationalist political parties

Currently represented in national legislatures

The following political parties have been characterised as ultranationalist.

Represented parties with former ultranationalist tendencies or factions

The following political parties historically had ultranationalist tendencies or factions.

Formerly represented in national legislatures

Ultranationalist political organizations

See also

References

  1. ^ Ultranationalism. Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  2. ^ Ultranationalism. Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  3. ^ Roger Griffin, "Nationalism" in Cyprian Blamires, ed., World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia, vol. 2 (Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2006), pp. 451-53.
  4. ^ Pamuk, Humeyra. "U.S. Designates Russian Ultra-Nationalist Group as Terrorist Organization". US News. Retrieved 2020.
  5. ^ The Politics of National Minority Participation in Post-communist Europe. EastWest Institute. p.65. Section author - Janusz Bugajski. Book edited by Johnathan P.Stein. Published by M.E. Sharpe. Published in New York in 2000. Retrieved via Google Books.
  6. ^ Blamires, Cyprian (2006). World fascism: a historical encyclopedia. p. 452. ISBN 9781576079409.
  7. ^ "Ultra-nationalist's car-crash immigration interview". Noosa News. 9 August 2013. Retrieved 2020. Stephanie Banister, who is hoping to represent the ultra-nationalist One Nation party
  8. ^ Cyprus and the roadmap for peace - A critical interrogation of the conflict. P. 87. Edited by Michalis S. Michael and Yucel Vural. Chapter authors - Yucel Vural, Sertac Sonan, and Michalis S. Michael. Published by Edward Elgar Publishing in Cheltenham, UK. Published in 2018.
  9. ^ "The 1619 Project and the far-right fear of history". The Washington Post. 20 August 2019. A leader of Germany's ultranationalist AfD party in 2017 bemoaned how the country's focus on atoning ...
  10. ^ "Frankenstein pact puts AfD in coalition". The Times. 23 July 2019. A married couple have run into trouble for forging the first local pact between Angela Merkel's party and the ultranationalist Alternative for Germany (AfD) in defiance of the chancellor.
  11. ^ "Greek elections: landslide victory for centre-right New Democracy party". The Guardian. 7 July 2019. Smaller parties, such as the ultra-nationalist Greek Solution and leftist MeRA25, headed by Yanis Varoufakis, the former finance minister, were targeting younger Greeks.
  12. ^ Mark Magnier (8 March 2012). "In India, battle continues over Hindu temple's riches - latimes". Los Angeles Times. Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved .
  13. ^ "Election Polls: 6-14 Seats for Bennett and Shaked's New Right-wing Party, Labor Party Crashes". Haaretz. 30 December 2018.
  14. ^ "Otzma Yehudit candidate: Critics have to go back 30 years in order to attack us". The Times of Israel. 24 February 2019.
  15. ^ "Israel Swears In New Government, Ending Netanyahu's Rule".
  16. ^ "Beautiful Harmony: Political Project Behind Japan's New Era Name - Analysis". eurasia review. 16 July 2019. The shifting dynamics around the new era name (geng? ) offers an opportunity to understand how the domestic politics of the LDP's project of ultranationalism is shaping a new Japan and a new form of nationalism.
  17. ^ "Abe's cabinet reshuffle". East Asia Forum. 14 September 2019. Abe also rewarded right-wing politicians who are close to him -- so-called 'ideological friends' who are being increasingly pushed to the forefront of his administration -- such as LDP Executive Acting Secretary-General Koichi Hagiuda who was appointed Education Minister. As a member of the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi (Japan Conference), which seeks to promote patriotic education, he can be considered 'reliable' as the government's policy leader on national education.
  18. ^ Mark Poysden, Marco Bratt, ed. (2006). Global Studies: Japan and the Pacific Rim. KIT Publishers. p. 97. ... Koizumi calls the war criminals 'martyrs', a view shared by many elderly veterans, Right-wing Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) lawmakers and ultra-nationalist groups . He now claims that he visits the shrine as a private citizen, not as the prime minister. It is an open secret in Japan that most LDP politicians are linked to ...
  19. ^ "Polish Interior Minister Issues Last-Minute Ban on Neo-Fascist Show of Force Outside Israeli Embassy in Warsaw". The Algemeiner. 31 January 2018.
  20. ^ "Ultranationalists Move to Slap Fines on Use of Foreign Words". 21 February 2013.
  21. ^ Van Herpen, Marcel H. (2015). Putin's Propaganda Machine: Soft Power and Russian Foreign Policy. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 34.
  22. ^ The Turn of the Fascist Archived 12 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Jane Duncan, SACSIS (2011).
  23. ^ Imraan Baccus,"Is fascism rearing its ugly head in SA?" Archived 6 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, City Press (2013).
  24. ^ "Not Even a Prosperous Slovakia Is Immune to Doubts About the E.U." New York Times. 17 December 2016.
  25. ^ Acha, Beatriz (6 January 2019). "No, no es un partido (neo)fascista". Agenda Pública.
  26. ^ Antón-Mellón, Joan (29 April 2019). "Vox. Del nacional-catolicismo al ultranacionalismo neoliberal". Agenda Pública.
  27. ^ Estrin, Barbara L. (2012). Shakespeare and Contemporary Fiction: Theorizing Foundling and Lyric Plots. p. 17. ISBN 1611493706.
  28. ^ Arman, Murat Necip (2007). "The Sources Of Banality In Transforming Turkish Nationalism". CEU Political Science Journal (2): 133-151.
  29. ^ Eissenstat, Howard. (November 2002). Anatolianism: The History of a Failed Metaphor of Turkish Nationalism. Middle East Studies Association Conference. Washington, D.C.
  30. ^ Göçek, Fatma Müge (2015). Denial of Violence: Ottoman Past, Turkish Present and Collective Violence Against the Armenians, 1789-2009. Oxford University Press. p. 402. ISBN 978-0-19-933420-9.
  31. ^ "Svoboda: The rise of Ukraine's ultra-nationalists". BBC. 25 December 2012. Retrieved 2015.
  32. ^ a b c Davies, Peter; Lynch, Derek (2002). The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-13460-952-9.
  33. ^ Reuters (1997-07-21). "Bosnia Serbs Oust Leader From Her Party". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved .
  34. ^ "Holbooke to seek removal of Bosnian Serb leader". The Irish Times. Retrieved .
  35. ^ Katsikas, Stefanos (2011). "Negotiating Diplomacy in the New Europe: Foreign Policy in Post-Communist Bulgaria". I.B. Tauris: 64. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  36. ^ "Khmer People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP)". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2020.
  37. ^ Tsatsanis, Emmanouil (2011), "Hellenism under siege: the national-populist logic of antiglobalization rhetoric in Greece", Journal of Political Ideologies, 16 (1): 11-31, doi:10.1080/13569317.2011.540939, S2CID 143633586, ...and far right-wing newspapers such as Alpha Ena, Eleytheros Kosmos, Eleytheri Ora and Stohos (the mouthpiece of ultra-nationalist group Chrysi Avgi).
  38. ^ Ivarsflaten, Elisabeth (2006), Reputational Shields: Why Most Anti-Immigrant Parties Failed in Western Europe, 1980-2005 (PDF), Nuffield College, University of Oxford, p. 15
  39. ^ On the Road with Golden Dawn, Greece's Ultra-Nationalist Party. Time. Published 31 October 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  40. ^ Khin Moh Moh Lwin and Myo Set Pai (20 November 2020). "Far-right Buddhist nationalist candidates among biggest losers in 2020 election". Myanmar Now. Retrieved 2020.
  41. ^ Internal Crisis Group (5 September 2017). "Buddhism and State Power in Myanmar". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  42. ^ Ford, Peter (2018). "Serbian Radical Party surge may complicate reform". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2018.
  43. ^ "Warlord's party hopeful of winning seats". edition.cnn.com. CNN. 24 December 2020.
  44. ^ "?eljko Ra?natovi?". britannica.com. Britannica.
  45. ^ Wiesinger, Barbara (December 2008). "The Continuing Presence of the Extreme Right in Post-Milo?evi? Serbia".
  46. ^ "Mladic on his way to UN war crimes tribunal". France 24. 2011-05-31. Retrieved .
  47. ^ "Serbia's pro-EU populists win vote, initial projections show". AP NEWS. Retrieved .
  48. ^ Armakolas, Ioannis; Maksimovi?, Maja (May 2013). "The Beginning of the End for the Kosovo Problem? The Agreement on Normalisation of Relations between Belgrade and Pristina and its Aftermath" (PDF). ETH Zürich. Retrieved 2021.
  49. ^ Ulla Fionna, ed. (2015). Watching the Indonesian Elections 2014. ISEAS Publishing. p. 106. ISBN 9789814620833. Prabowo has accepted support from and declared his willingness to work with such organizations as the (notorious) radical Islamic group Front Pembela Islam (Defenders of Islam Front) and the ultra-nationalist Pemuda Pancasila
  50. ^ Nippon Kaigi: The ultra-nationalistic group trying to restore the might of the Japanese Empire. ABC News Online. Author - Matthew Carney. Published 2 December 2015. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  51. ^ "Abe's cabinet reshuffle". East Asia Forum. 14 September 2019. Abe also rewarded right-wing politicians who are close to him -- so-called 'ideological friends' who are being increasingly pushed to the forefront of his administration -- such as LDP Executive Acting Secretary-General Koichi Hagiuda who was appointed Education Minister. As a member of the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi (Japan Conference), which seeks to promote patriotic education, he can be considered 'reliable' as the government's policy leader on national education.
  52. ^ "Japanese minister becomes first in two years to visit Tokyo's controversial Yasukuni Shrine". South China Morning Post. 17 October 2019. Retrieved 2020. Eto is serving in his first cabinet position and is a member of the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi organisation, whose aims are to revise the "national consciousness" surrounding the prosecution of Japan's war criminals and to change the nation's pacifist constitution implemented after the war. The group also promotes "patriotic education".
  53. ^ Michal Kolmas, ed. (2019). National Identity and Japanese Revisionism. Routledge. ISBN 9781351334396. ... and foreign policy are rightwing revisionists organized in groups such as the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi ...
  54. ^ Ugo Dessì, ed. (2013). Japanese Religions and Globalization. Routledge. p. 146. ISBN 9780415811705.
  55. ^ "Japan combats rise in hate speech". Al Jazeera. 30 November 2015. Retrieved 2020. ... and many don't speak Korean or have ties to Korea. Even so, ultranationalist groups like Zaitokukai have singled them out and used Japan's very liberal protection of speech to harass, intimidate and silence Zainichi with noisy street protests and attacks online, often anonymously.
  56. ^ "Head of anti-foreigner group Zaitokukai to step down". Japan Times. 30 November 2015. Retrieved 2020. The longtime chairman of the ultranationalist group Zaitokukai has announced he will step down and even give up his membership in the group, saying the move will eventually bolster the organization's influence.
  57. ^ Zaman, Dina (23 June 2012). "Is there a need for more interfaith dialogue in Malaysia? Part 1". newmandala.org. Retrieved 2021. "Perkasa (an all Malay ultranationalist group) ready to crusade against ungrateful Christians,"
  58. ^ Nilsen, Marte (12 March 2015). "Buddhist nationalism threatens Myanmar's democratic transition". East Asia Forum. Retrieved 2021.
  59. ^ "Buddhist Authorities Ban Myanmar's Ultranationalist Ma Ba Tha Group". Radio Free Asia. 23 May 2017. Retrieved 2021.
  60. ^ "Brawling Myanmar Monks Show Buddhist Nationalists Backing Coup". Bloomberg News. 10 March 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  61. ^ Beech, Hannah (1 July 2013). "When Buddhists go Bad". Time (New Zealand edition). 182 (1): 19.
  62. ^ SCF (2018-10-09). "Germany seeks to ban ultranationalist Turkish Grey Wolves' symbols". Stockholm Center for Freedom. Retrieved .
  63. ^ van Wilgenburg, Wladimir (2019-02-14). "Austria bans symbols of PKK, Turkish Grey Wolves, and Muslim Brotherhood". www.kurdistan24.net. Retrieved .
  64. ^ Selcen, Ayd?n (2020-09-05). "Far-right group attempts to attack Grup Yorum member Gökçeks grave to burn his body". Duvar English. Retrieved .
  65. ^ Alessio, Dominic; Meredith, Kristen (2014). "Blackshirts for the Twenty-First Century? Fascism and the English Defence League". Social Identities. 20 (1): 104-118. doi:10.1080/13504630.2013.843058.

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Ultranationalism
 



 



 
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