In early times, the goddess of vultures was believed to protect Upper Egypt. She was called Nekhbet.
|c. 3400 BC-c. 3150 BC|
|Common languages||Ancient Egyptian|
|Religion||Ancient Egyptian religion|
o c. 3400 BC
|Scorpion I (first)|
o c. 3150 BC
|c. 3400 BC|
|c. 3150 BC|
|Today part of||Egypt|
Upper Egypt (Arabic: ? ?ad Mi?r, shortened to , Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [es.s?e.'?i:d], locally: [es.s.'?i:d]; Coptic: ) is the southern portion of Egypt and is composed of the lands on both sides of the Nile that extend downriver between Nubia and Lower Egypt in the north.
In ancient Egypt, Upper Egypt was known as t? ?m?w, literally "the Land of Reeds" or "the Sedgeland". It is believed to have been united by the rulers of the supposed Thinite Confederacy who absorbed their rival city states during Naqada III and its unification with Lower Egypt ushered in the Early Dynastic period. Both Upper and Lower Egypt became imbedded within the symbolism of the sovereignty in Ancient Egypt such as the Pschent double crown. Upper Egypt remained as a historical distinction even after the classical period.
Upper Egypt is between the Cataracts of the Nile beyond modern-day Aswan, downriver (northward) to the area of El-Ayait, which places modern-day Cairo in Lower Egypt. The northern (downriver) part of Upper Egypt, between Sohag and El-Ayait, is also known as Middle Egypt.
By approximately 3600 BC, Neolithic Egyptian societies along the Nile had based their culture on the raising of crops and the domestication of animals. Shortly after 3600 BC, Egyptian society began to grow and increase in complexity. A new and distinctive pottery, which was related to the Levantine ceramics, appeared during this time. Extensive use of copper became common during this time. The Mesopotamian process of sun-drying adobe and architectural principles--including the use of the arch and recessed walls for decorative effect--became popular during this time.
Concurrent with these cultural advances, a process of unification of the societies and towns of the upper Nile River, or Upper Egypt, occurred. At the same time the societies of the Nile Delta, or Lower Egypt, also underwent a unification process. Warfare between Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt occurred often. During his reign in Upper Egypt, King Narmer defeated his enemies on the delta and united both of the kingdoms of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt under his single rule, which endured throughout Dynastic Egypt.
For most of Egypt's ancient history, Thebes was the administrative center of Upper Egypt. Upper Egypt was represented by the tall White Crown Hedjet, and its symbols were the flowering lotus and the sedge. Its patron deity, Nekhbet, was depicted by the vulture. After unification of the two kingdoms, the patron deities of both Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt were represented together as the Two Ladies, to protect all of the ancient Egyptians, just as the two crowns became united throughout the dynasties that followed.
In the eleventh century, large numbers of pastoralists, known as Hilalians, fled Upper Egypt and moved westward into Libya and as far as Tunis. It is believed that degraded grazing conditions in Upper Egypt, associated with the beginning of the Medieval Warm Period, were the root cause of the migration.
The following list may not be complete (there are many more of uncertain existence):
|Elephant||End of 4th millennium BC|
|Bull||4th millennium BC|
|Scorpion I||Oldest tomb at Umm el-Qa'ab had scorpion insignia||c. 3200 BC?|
|Iry-Hor||Possibly the immediate predecessor of Ka.||c. 3150 BC?|
|Ka||May be read Sekhen rather than Ka. Possibly the immediate predecessor of Narmer.||c. 3100 BC|
|Scorpion II||Potentially read Serqet; possibly the same person as Narmer.||c. 3150 BC|
|Narmer||The king who combined Upper and Lower Egypt.||c. 3150 BC|
|Number||Ancient Name||Capital||Modern Capital||Translation||God|
|1||Ta-khentit||Abu / Yebu (Elephantine)||Aswan||The Frontier/Land of the Bow||Khnemu|
|2||Wetjes-Hor||Djeba (Apollonopolis Magna)||Edfu||Throne of Horus||Horus-Behdety|
|3||Nekhen||Nekhen (Hierakon polis)||al-Kab||Shrine||Nekhebet|
|4||Waset||Niwt-rst / Waset (Thebes)||Karnak||Sceptre||Amun-Ra|
|5||Harawî||Gebtu (Coptos)||Qift||Two Falcons||Min|
|6||Aa-ta||Iunet / Tantere (Tentyra)||Dendera||Crocodile||Hathor|
|7||Seshesh||Seshesh (Diospolis Parva)||Hu||Sistrum||Hathor|
|8||Abdju||Abdju (Abydos)||al-Birba||Great Land||Onuris|
|9||Min||Apu / Khen-min (Panopolis)||Akhmim||Min||Min|
|10||Wadjet||Djew-qa / Tjebu (Aphroditopolis)||Edfu||Cobra||Hathor|
|11||Set||Shashotep (Hypselis)||Shutb||Set animal||Khnemu|
|12||Tu-ph||Hut-Sekhem-Senusret (Antaeopolis)||Qaw al-Kebir||Viper Mountain||Horus|
|13||Atef-Khent||Zawty (Lycopolis)||Asyut||Upper Sycamore and Viper||Apuat|
|14||Atef-Pehu||Qesy (Cusae)||al-Qusiya||Lower Sycamore and Viper||Hathor|
|18||Sep||Teudjoi / Hutnesut (Alabastronopolis)||el-Hiba||Set||Anubis|
|19||Uab||Per-Medjed (Oxyrhynchus)||el-Bahnasa||Two Sceptres||Set|
|20||Atef-Khent||Henen-nesut (Heracleopolis Magna)||Ihnasiyyah al-Madinah||Southern Sycamore||Heryshaf|
|21||Atef-Pehu||Shenakhen / Semenuhor (Crocodilopolis, Arsinoë)||Faiyum||Northern Sycamore||Khnemu|