V%E1%B9%9Bddhi
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V%E1%B9%9Bddhi

V?ddhi is a technical term in morphophonology given to the strongest grade of vowel in the Proto-Indo-European phenomenon of ablaut more generally referred to as apophony.

Origins

The term is derived from Sanskrit v?ddhi, IPA: ['?r?d?d], lit. 'growth',[a] from Proto-Indo-European *werd?- 'to grow'[1]

The concept itself, along with the rest of the vowel gradation processes, has its origin in an early stage of the Proto-Indo-European language.[2]

V?ddhi in Sanskrit

The general phenomenon of vowel gradation, including v?dhhi formation has been extensively studied and documented as part of Sanskrit's vigorous grammatical tradition, most importantly in the Ahadhyay? of the grammarian Pini.[3]

For example:[4]

  • bh?-tá- "carried" (zero grade)
  • bhár-a?a- "burden" (first grade, full grade, or gu?a)
  • bh?r-yá- "to be carried" (second grade, lengethened grade, or v?ddhi)

The full pattern of vowel gradation can be observed as follows:[5]

Vowel gradation
Zero grade 2nd grade
Open ? a ?
Palatal i/?
y
i/?
e[b]
ay
ya
ai[c]
?y
y?
Labial u/?
v
u/?
o[d]
av
va
au[e]
?v
v?
Retroflex ?
r
?
ar
ar
ra
?r
?r
r?
Dental ? al ?l

V?ddhi in Indo-European

In modern Indo-European linguistics it is used in Pini's sense, but not restricted to Sanskrit but applicable to the Indo-European languages in general as well as to the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) language from which this feature was inherited:

  • *b?r?-[f] (zero grade of the reconstructed verb meaning "to carry")[6]
  • *b?er- (full grade)
  • *b??r- (v?ddhi, lengthened grade)

V?ddhi-derivations

A v?ddhi-derivation or v?ddhi-derivative is a word that is derived by such lengthening, a type of formation very common in Sanskrit, but also attested in other languages. Such derivatives signify "of, belonging to, descended from". An example:[7]

  • PIE *swé?uro- "father-in-law" (Vedic Sanskrit ?vá?ura-) -> *sw??uró- "relating to one's father-in-law" (Vedic ?v??ura- "relating to one's father-in-law", Old High German sw?gur "brother-in-law")

Derivatives that are formed by inserting a full grade (as opposed to a lengthened grade) vowel into the "wrong" position of a zero grade are also called v?ddhi-derivations:[7]

  • PIE *diw-, zero grade of *dy?u-s "sky"-> *deyw-os "god, sky god" (Vedic devás, Latin deus, etc.)

Notes

  1. ^ in Sanskrit, a -tí-nomen actionis formed from the verbal root v?dh-/vardh- 'to grow'
  2. ^ originally 'ai'
  3. ^ originally '?i'
  4. ^ originally 'au'
  5. ^ originally '?u'
  6. ^ The asterisk * indicates that a form is not directly attested, but has been reconstructed on the basis of other linguistic material.

References

  1. ^ *werd?- 'to grow' entry at Indo-European etymological database of The Tower of Babel project
  2. ^ Clackson, §3.3.
  3. ^ Burrow, §2.1.
  4. ^ Meier-Brügger, Fritz & Mayrhofer (2003, L 413)
  5. ^ Bucknell, tb. 5.
  6. ^ Rix (2001:76f)
  7. ^ a b Fortson (2004:116f)

Bibliography

  • Fortson, Benjamin W., IV (2004). Indo-European Language and Culture. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-0316-7.
  • Meier-Brügger, Michael; Fritz, Matthias; Mayrhofer, Manfred (2003). Indo-European Linguistics. Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-017433-2.
  • Rix, H (2001). Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben (2 ed.). ISBN 3-89500-219-4.
  • Clackson, James (2007). Indo-European Linguistics. Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-65313-8.
  • Burrow, T. The Sanskrit Language (2001 ed.). Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1767-2.
  • Bucknell, Roderick S, Sanskrit Manual (2000) ISBN 81-208-1188-7

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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