Vandalic Language
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Vandalic Language
The Vandals during the Migration period.

Vandalic was the Germanic language spoken by the Vandals during roughly the 3rd to 6th centuries. It was probably closely related to Gothic, and as such is traditionally classified as an East Germanic language. Its attestation is very fragmentary, mainly due to Vandals' constant migrations and late adoption of writing. All modern sources from the time when Vandalic was spoken are protohistoric.

The Vandals, Hasdingi and Silingi established themselves in Gallaecia (northern Portugal and Galicia) and in southern Spain, following other Germanic and non-Germanic peoples (Visigoths, Alans and Suebi) in c. 410 before they moved to North Africa in the 430s. Their kingdom flourished in the early 6th century, but after their defeat in 536 they were placed under Byzantine administration and their language likely disappeared before the end of the century.

Attestation

Very little is known about the Vandalic language other than various phrases and a small number of personal names of Vandalic origin, mainly known from documents and personal names in Spanish. The regional name Andalusia is traditionally believed to have derived from Vandalic, although this claim is contested. When the Moors invaded and settled on the Iberian Peninsula from the 8th century to the end of the 15th, the region was called "Al-Andalus".

In one inscription from the Vandal Kingdom, the Christian incantation of Kyrie eleison is given in Vandalic as "Froia arme" ("Lord, have mercy!").[1] The same phrase appears in Collatio Beati Augustini cum Pascentio ariano 15 by Pseudo-Augustine: "Froja armes".[2]

The epigram De conviviis barbaris in the Latin Anthology, of North African origin and disputed date, contains a fragment in a Germanic language that some authors believe to be Vandalic,[3][4] although the fragment itself refers to the language as "Gothic". This may be because both languages were East Germanic and closely related; scholars have pointed out in this context[5] that Procopius refers to the Goths, Vandals, Visigoths, and Gepids as "Gothic nations" and opines that they "are all of the Arian faith, and have one language called Gothic".[6] The fragment reads:

Inter "eils" Goticum "scapia matzia ia drincan!"
non audet quisquam dignos educere versus.
Calliope madido trepidat se iungere Baccho.
ne pedibus non stet ebria Musa suis.[7]

Amid the Gothic "Hail! Let's get [something to] eat and drink"
nobody dares to put forth decent verses.
Calliope hurries to depart from wet Bacchus.
An inebriated Muse may not stand on her feet.

Other surviving Vandalic words are Baudus, "master" [8] and Vandalirice, "King of the Vandals".[9]

A table with Vandalic words that have survived in Vandalic names and texts can give us some clues of the Vandalic language by comparing them with Proto-Germanic. Words of the second part of names were used in this list because words of the first part might have been influenced by a connecting vowel and therefore would be unreliable.[10]

Vandalic Proto-Germanic Gothic Modern German English first part of name word attested in Vandalic text total
*ari *harjaz harjis Heer army, cf. arch. here
arme *arm?n? armai erbarmen (have mercy) yes
*baudes *bauðiz (Herrscher) (master, ruler)
*bere *berô baira Bär bear yes
*bluma *bl?mô bloma Blume flower, bloom yes
*dagila *dagaz dags Tag day (diminutive)
drincan *drinkan? drigkan (nk is written gk) trinken drink yes
eils *hailaz hails heil hale, whole yes
*frida *friþu- Friedensstifter (pacifier)
*feua *friþu- Friedensstifterchen (pacifier, diminutive)
froia *frawjô frauja Freiherr, cf. Frau (lord), cf. free yes
*frede *friþuz Friede (pacifier)
*geis *gaiza- gais Speer, arch. Ger (spear), cf. garlic
*gunda / guntha *gunþjo Kampf, Gund- (in names) (battle)
*guilia *wilja- wilja Wille will yes
*guiti wîti- Weite combat [the Germanic word means width, not combat]
*hildi, ild *hildjô Kampf, Hild- (in names) (battle) yes
*hostra *austra austrs Osten east
ia *jahw jah (und) (and) yes
matzia *matiz (= food) mats Essen, cf. Messer (food, eating, cf. meat) yes
*mir/mer *m?rijaz mers cf. Mär(chen), Mer- (in names) mere (famous)
*munds *mund? (f.) Beschützer, cf. Mündel, -mund (in names) (defender)
*mut *moðaz moþs (anger, wrath) Mut courage, cf. mood
*oa *hauhaz hauhs hoch high
*osta *austra- austrs Ost east
*ricus *rîkaz -reiks (in names) König, cf. -rich (in names) and Reich king, c.f. -ric (in compounds)
*rit *rêðaz redan (to counsel) Rat counsellor, cf. rede
*rith *rêðaz redan (to counsel) Rat advice, counsel, rede
*rix *rîkaz -reiks (in names) -rich (in names), cf. Reich king
*runa *runo runa Geheimnis, cf. Rune (secret)
scapia *skapjan? skapjan schaffen to create, to do, cf. to shape yes
*scarila *skara- Schar (band, diminutive)
*sifila *sibjo sibja (relationship) Sippe kindred, diminutive; cf. sibling
*sind(i) *sinþa- sinþan (to go, wander) reisen, cf. senden travel, cf. to send make travel yes
*trioua *triwwa triggws Treue, treu loyal, cf. true
*teus *þewaz þius Sklave, Diener, cf. De-mut (slave, servant)
*theudo *þeud? þiuda Diet- (in names), cf. deutsch folk, cf. Scottish thede
*uit *wîti- Weite combat [the Germanic word means width, not combat]
vandalirice - king of the Vandals yes
*vili *wilja wilja wille will yes
*vult *wulþu- wulþus (Herrlichkeit, Glanz) (glory)

Grammar

Very little is known about Vandalic grammar, but some things can be extracted from Vandalic names.

Phonology and sound-change

The phonological features of Vandalic are similar to the ones of Gothic.

The Proto-Germanic long vowel *? is often preserved in Vandalic names (Gunthimer, Geilimer), but it could become i when it was unstressed: Geilamir, Vitarit. The Proto-Germanic short vowel *e turned into i in Vandalic when it was not preceded by */r, h or w/, Sigisteun contains -i because g precedes the vowel, but Beremut retains the *e because r precedes the vowel. The Proto-Germanic *z is also preserved in the language but is written as s in the Latin names (Gaisericus).

Proto-Germanic *? turns into /u/ in Vandalic: Blumarit (Proto-Germanic: *bl?mô), Vilimut, while it is retained as ? in Gothic (bl?ma).

The Proto-Germanic diphthong *eu tends to remain the same in Vandalic: Theudo- (people), while it changes to /iu/ in Gothic (þiuda).

The original diphthong *ai is preserved as /ai/, but tends to become /ei/ later (Gaisericus changes to Geiseric in later documents).

The original h- was also lost early in Vandalic when compared to Proto-Germanic (Arifridos, Guntari, Proto-Germanic: *harja- 'army'). When royal names are spelled on Vandal coins, a conservative and official spelling is used and the h- is never omitted.

The Proto-Germanic cluster *-ww- can be strengthened as -g-.

The Proto-Germanic *-tj- can become [tsj] (matzia < *matjana).

Declension and word-formation

The original Proto-Germanic *-z endings of the nominative masculine singular which was lost in West-Germanic languages early is preserved in the Vandalic language, but it is an archaic feature because the *-z is lost in most words and in 6th-century Ostrogothic names it was lost completely. The *-z is rendered both as -s and -x in Vandalic. Some of the Vandalic names have a Romanized ending with -us. Vandalic also didn't have an Umlaut, which can be observed in names which contain the word *ari (Ariarith, Arifridos, Guntari, Raginari, Proto-Germanic: *harjaz 'army'), in comparison to the Old English form here, which does show umlaut.

The epithet Vandalirice could possibly mean that there existed a genitive plural ending -e (Gothic -?). If this is correct, the -e is written as i here. Non-East Germanic languages like Old English and Old Norse had the genitive plural ending -a.

Some of the names also occur in other declinations. The genitive of *rith is ridos.

Latin influence

  • The Proto-Germanic fricatives *þ and *ð often turned into t or d, but there are also some names in which they were retained (Thrasamundus, Guntha).
  • The original h- was also lost under Latin influence, though it was still included in the spelling of some royal names on Vandalic coins.
  • The initial Proto-Germanic *w- sometimes changed into [gw-] (Guiliaruna, < Proto-Germanic *wilja-, Guitifrida, < *wîti-), but, in some instances, it is spelled as /v/ (pronounced [w]): vult- (< wulþuz).
  • Vandalic names could contain Latin elements or suffixes (Mauritta, Bictoricus, etc.)[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ Berndt, Guido M. (2016-04-15). Arianism: Roman Heresy and Barbarian Creed. Routledge. ISBN 9781317178651.
  2. ^ Steinacher, Roland (2008). "Gruppen und Identitäten. Gedanken zur Beichnung "vandalisch"" (PDF). In Berndt, Guido M.; Steinacher, Roland (eds.). Das Reich der Vandalen und seine (Vor-)Geschichten. 2005. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. p. 254. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2012.
  3. ^ "Indogermanistik Wien: Quellentexte". Archived from the original on October 17, 2010. Retrieved .
  4. ^ Greule, Albrecht and Matthias Springer. Namen des Frühmittelalters als sprachliche Zeugnisse und als Geschichtsquellen. P. 49-50.
  5. ^ Greule, Albrecht and Matthias Springer. Namen des Frühmittelalters als sprachliche Zeugnisse und als Geschichtsquellen. P. 48
  6. ^ Procopius of Caesarea, THE VANDALIC WAR I,2-8
  7. ^ Quoted in Magnús Snædal, 'The "Vandal" Epigram', in Filologia Germanica/Germanic Philology, 1 (2009), 181-213 (pp. 183-84).
  8. ^ Anthologia Latina No. 307, I. 5
  9. ^ Anthologia Latina No. 215, 523-543
  10. ^ https://www.academia.edu/691311/Tracing_the_Language_of_the_Vandals, Nicoletta Onesti, "Tracing the Language of the Vandals", https://www.academia.edu, 16 pages, 22 February 2015
  11. ^ https://www.academia.edu/1516556/THE_LANGUAGE_AND_NAMES_OF_THE_VANDALS, Nicoletta Onesti, "THE LANGUAGE AND NAMES OF THE VANDALS", https://www.academia.edu, 2009, 3, 22 February 2015

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