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Verrucomicrobia are abundant within the environment, though relatively inactive. This phylum is considered to have two sister phyla: Chlamydiae and Lentisphaerae within the PVC group. The Verrucomicrobia phylum can be distinguished from neighbouring phyla within the PVC group by the presence of several conserved signature indels (CSIs). These CSIs represent unique, synapomorphic characteristics that suggest common ancestry within Verrucomicrobia and an independent lineage amidst other bacteria.CSIs have also been found that are shared by Verrucomicrobia and Chlamydiae exclusively of all other bacteria. These CSIs provide evidence that Chlamydiae is the closest relative to Verrucomicrobia, and that they are more closely related to one another than to the Planctomycetales.
^Cho J, Vergin K, Morris R, Giovannoni S (2004). "Lentisphaera araneosa gen. nov., sp. nov, a transparent exopolymer producing marine bacterium, and the description of a novel bacterial phylum, Lentisphaerae". Environ Microbiol. 6 (6): 611-21. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2004.00614.x. PMID15142250.
^Wagner, M; Horn, M (2006). "The Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae and sister phyla comprise a superphylum with biotechnological and medical relevance". Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 17 (3): 241-9. doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2006.05.005. PMID16704931.