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The visa policy of the Schengen Area is set by the European Union and applies to the Schengen Area and to other EU member states except Ireland. The visa policy allows nationals of certain countries to enter the Schengen Area via air, land or sea without a visa for stays of up to 90 days within a 180-day period. Nationals of certain other countries are required to have a visa either upon arrival or in transit.
The Schengen Area consists of 22 EU member states and four non-EU countries that are members of EFTA: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, while EU members, are not yet part of the Schengen Area but, nonetheless, have a visa policy that is partially based on the Schengen acquis.
Nationals of EU single market countries are not only visa-exempt but are legally entitled to enter and reside in each other's countries. Their right to freedom of movement in each other's countries can, however, be limited in a reserved number of situations, as prescribed by EU treaties.
|Rules for freedom of movement|
|Directive 2004/38/EC defines the right of free movement for citizens of the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the European Union (EU) and three European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein. Switzerland, which is a member of EFTA but not of the EEA, is not bound by the Directive but rather has a separate bilateral agreement on the free movement with the EU. Freedom of movement between Switzerland and the other EFTA countries happens in accordance with the EFTA convention. All of these countries comprise the EU single market.
Nationals of all EU single market states holding a valid passport, passport card, or national identity card can enter, reside and work in each other's territory without a visa. If they are unable to present a valid passport or national identity card at the border, they must nonetheless be afforded every reasonable opportunity to obtain the necessary documents or have them brought to them within a reasonable period of time or corroborate or prove by other means that they are covered by the right of free movement.
However, EU single market states can refuse entry to any EU single market national on public policy, public security or public health grounds where the person presents a "genuine, present and sufficiently serious threat affecting one of the fundamental interests of society". If the person has obtained permanent residence in the country where entry is sought (a status which is normally attained after 5 years of residence), the member state can only expel the person on serious grounds of public policy or public security. Where the person has resided for 10 years or is a minor, the member state can only expel the person on imperative grounds of public security (and, in the case of minors, if expulsion is necessary in the best interests of the child, as provided for in the Convention on the Rights of the Child). Expulsion on public health grounds must relate to diseases with 'epidemic potential' which have occurred less than 3 months from the person's date of arrival in the member state where entry is sought.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, on 16 March 2020 the European Commission issued a recommendation to all EU and Schengen member states to introduce a temporary restriction on the entry of third-country nationals (i.e. travellers who are not EU/EEA/Swiss/British citizens and family members with the right of free movement) to the Schengen Area for non-essential travel for an initial period of 30 days (with the possible prolongation of this period to be assessed based on further developments). However, third-country nationals who are holders of long-term visas or residence permits or are family members of EU/EEA/Swiss/British citizens are exempt from this restriction. Further, third-country nationals 'with an essential function or need' (such as healthcare workers, transport personnel, aid workers, military personnel, seasonal agricultural workers), passengers in transit, those travelling 'for imperative family reasons' and those 'in need of international protection or for other humanitarian reasons' are exempt from this restriction. Nevertheless, the European Commission re-iterated that 'coordinated and reinforced health checks' should be carried out on all travellers who are permitted to enter the EU and Schengen Area. All EU (except Ireland) and Schengen member states are now applying this travel restriction.
Further, on 30 March 2020, the European Commission published 'Guidance on the implementation of the temporary restriction on non-essential travel to the EU, on the facilitation of transit arrangements for the repatriation of EU citizens, and on the effects on visa policy' in order to provide 'advice and practical instructions'. The Guidance states that member states are permitted to take measures (such as requiring non-nationals to undergo a period of self-isolation if arriving from a territory affected by COVID-19), provided that the same requirements is imposed on its own nationals. The Guidance also clarifies that citizens of the European micro-states (Andorra, the Holy See, Monaco and San Marino) are exempt from the temporary restriction on the entry of third-country nationals to the European Union and the Schengen Area for non-essential travel. In addition, citizens of Serbia, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Turkey should be permitted entry to the European Union and the Schengen Area if they are stranded abroad in order to facilitate repatriation to their country of origin.
Third-country nationals (not covered by one of the exemptions from the temporary restriction of entry for non-essential reasons) who seek to enter the Schengen Area will be refused entry at the external border crossing point and will receive a refusal of entry form (with the reason of refusal marked as "I", i.e. a threat to public health), as well a passport stamp cancelled by an indelible cross in black ink and the letter "I" on the right hand side.
Third-country nationals (including 'Annex II' visa-exempt nationals) who are 'compelled' to stay beyond their original period of stay (in most cases, 90 days) may be issued a national long-term visa or temporary residence permit. Schengen member states are also encouraged to waive any administrative sanctions or penalties on third-country nationals who overstay due to travel restrictions hindering their ability to leave the Schengen Area.
On 8 April 2020, the European Commission invited EU and Schengen member states to extend the restriction on the entry of third-country nationals for non-essential travel for a further period of 30 days until 15 May 2020. On 8 May 2020, the European Commission again invited member states to extend the restriction for another 30 days until 15 June 2020. On 11 June 2020, the European Commission recommended member states to prolong the restriction on the entry of third-country nationals for non-essential travel until 30 June 2020.
Since 2001, the European Union has issued a list of countries whose nationals need visas (Annex I) and a list of those who do not (Annex II). The two lists are also adopted by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, even though the four countries are not yet part of the Schengen Area.
Nationals of the following 63 countries and territories holding ordinary passports may enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania without a visa, for short stays (usually 90 days within a 180-day period):
|Date of visa changes|
|Rules for Annex II nationals|
|To be able to enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania, the above Annex II nationals are required to:
The above Annex II nationals can enter the Schengen Area as a whole for pleasure or for business without the need to apply for a visa for a maximum of 90 days in any 180-day period (which entails considering the 180-day period preceding each day of stay). This does not apply to the nationals of those countries that have concluded visa waiver agreements with the EU – Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Brazil, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Mauritius, and Seychelles, with respect to which the old definition of 3 months during a 6 months period following the date of first entry continues to apply. Any time spent by an Annex II national in the Schengen Area on a long-stay visa or a residence permit does not count towards the visa exemption period limit of 90 days.
Australian and New Zealand citizens enjoy a more liberal visa policy, with both governments having signed bilateral visa agreements with individual Schengen countries. Australian citizens can spend up to 90 days in each of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden without reference to time spent in other Schengen signatory states. New Zealand citizens can spend up to 90 days in each of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland (as well as Hungary if visiting it as the final Schengen destination) without reference to time spent in other Schengen signatory states, but if travelling to other Schengen countries the 90 days in any 180-day period time limit applies.
In addition, above the framework of the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180-day period, Argentine, Chilean, Costa Rican, Israeli, Malaysian, South Korean and Uruguayan nationals are permitted to spend an extra 3 months per 6-month period visa-free in the Czech Republic, regardless of time spent in other Schengen countries. Further, the old method of calculating the length of the visa-free stay (i.e. 3 months within 6 months instead of 90 days in any 180-day period) still applies to nationals of Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Paraguay in the Czech Republic.
Similarly, above the framework of the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180-day period, Canadian, Chilean, Israeli, Japanese, Malaysian, Singaporean, South Korean and United States nationals are permitted to spend an extra period of 90 days visa-free in Denmark.
In addition to the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180-day period, Argentine, Australian, Brazilian, Bruneian, Canadian, Chilean, Costa Rican, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduran, Israeli, Japanese, Malaysian, Mexican, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Paraguayan, Singaporean, South Korean, United States, Uruguayan and Venezuelan nationals are permitted to spend an extra period of 90 days visa-free in Norway.
Yet further, above the framework of the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180-day period, Argentine, Chilean, Costa Rican, Honduran, Israeli, Japanese, Malaysian, Mexican, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Singaporean, South Korean, United States and Uruguayan nationals are permitted to spend an extra period of 90 days visa-free in Poland.
All Annex II nationals can also enter Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania without a visa for a maximum of 90 days in a 180-day period in each of these countries. The visa-free time restrictions for each of these countries is calculated separately (as well as being separate to the Schengen Area visa-free time restriction).
Although all Annex II nationals can enter Schengen countries, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania visa-free for pleasure or for business, individual countries can decide to impose a visa requirement on those who wish to enter to work (i.e. to carry out a 'paid activity'). The table at the end of the article indicates which individual countries permit Annex II nationals to work during their visa-free stay.
Visa waiver access for Annex II nationals of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, North Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia and Ukraine applies only to holders of biometric passports. Visa waiver access does not apply to holders of passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate, which issues Serbian passports in Kosovo.
Visa waiver for New Zealand nationals also applies to Cook Islanders, Niueans and Tokelauans as they also use New Zealand passports.
Visa waiver for Taiwan applies only to holders of Taiwanese passports with their personal ID numbers stipulated in their respective passports. Taiwan issues passports without ID numbers to some persons not having the right to reside in Taiwan, including nationals without household registration and certain persons from Hong Kong, Macau, and mainland China. The visa waivers granted by the European Union and Ireland to Taiwan passport holders have not altered the European Union member states' non-recognition of Taiwan as a sovereign country. For this reason, "Taiwan" is listed in Annex II by the European Commission under the heading "entities and territorial authorities that are not recognised as states by at least one member state". Individual member state labels may differ, for example it is listed by Bulgaria as "China, Taipei", and at one point by Romania under the heading "Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China", although Romania later adjusted it classification to reflect the EU designation.
|Rules regarding paid activity during visa-free stay|
|According to a table compiled by the European Commission, some Schengen countries permit certain nationals to work during their visa-free stay:
Holders of a long-stay visa or residence permit issued by a Schengen state or Monaco may also travel to other Schengen states, without an additional visa, for a stay of up to 90 days in any 180-day period. Short-stay visas issued by a Schengen state are also valid for all other Schengen states unless marked otherwise.
Holders of a visa (even if limited to a specific country) or residence permit issued by a Schengen state, Monaco, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania may also travel to Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania without an additional visa, for a stay of up to 90 days in any 180-day period (except nationals of Turkey and Azerbaijan travelling to Cyprus, who still need a Cypriot visa). However, visas and residence permits issued by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania are not valid for travel to the Schengen Area.
Individuals of any nationality who are family members of EU single market nationals and are in possession of a residence card indicating their status are exempt from the requirement to hold a visa when entering the EU single market when they are accompanying their EU single market family member or are seeking to join them.
|Rules for family members of EU single market nationals|
|An individual can enter and stay in each Schengen member state for up to 90 days without a visa if he/she:
Holders of a residence card of a family member of a Union citizen issued by a Schengen member state can travel to another Schengen member state without a visa, regardless of whether they are travelling independently, or accompanying or joining their EU/EEA/Swiss citizen family member. However, holders of a residence card of a family member of a Union citizen issued by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland and the UK can travel to the Schengen Area without a visa only if they are accompanying or joining their EU/EEA/Swiss citizen family member.
In theory, a family member of an EU single market national who does not fulfil the above conditions does not have to apply for a visa in advance, and can instead obtain a visa on arrival at the border checkpoint of a Schengen country, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania by presenting evidence of the familial relationship.
|Rules for school pupils resident in the EU single market|
|A school pupil who is not an EU single market national, but who legally resides in the EU single market, can enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania without a visa for a short stay or transit if:
Even though a school pupil fulfilling all of the above conditions is exempt from having to obtain a visa to enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, he or she is nonetheless required to have a valid travel document. However, he or she is exempt from having to carry a valid travel document if:
|Rules for school pupils resident in Annex II countries and territories|
|School pupils travelling in the context of a school excursion as members of a group of school pupils accompanied by a teacher from the school in question who reside in an Annex II country/territory, but hold the nationality of an Annex I country/territory, are granted visa-free entry to Cyprus (a national collective visa is required), Germany, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Sweden (under age 18). In addition, those who reside in the United Kingdom are also granted visa-free entry to Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
School pupils (of any nationality and resident in any country) who require a visa for the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania and who are visiting for the purpose of study and/or educational training are waived the visa application fee (but are still required to submit the relevant supporting documents).
|Rules for refugees and stateless people|
|According to a table compiled by the European Commission, some Schengen countries grant visa-free entry to refugees or stateless people who reside in Ireland or in an Annex II country/territory:
Currently the local border traffic regulation agreements exist with Belarus (with Latvia since 2011), Moldova (with Romania since 2010), Russia (with Norway since 2012, with Latvia since 2013 and Poland 2012-20161) and Ukraine (with Hungary and Slovakia since 2008, Poland since 2009 and Romania since 2015). Agreement between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is pending ratification but is applied on provisional basis.
|Rules for the holders of local border traffic permits|
|Schengen countries are authorised by virtue of the EU regulation no 1931/2006 to conclude bilateral agreements with neighbouring third countries to introduce a local border traffic permit scheme. Such permits are a type of multiple-entry visa in the form of a passport sticker or a card containing the holder's name and photo, as well as a statement that its holder is not authorised to move outside the border area and that any abuse shall be subject to penalties. The border area may include any administrative district within 30 kilometres from the external border (and, if any district extends beyond that limit, the whole district up to 50 kilometres from the border). The applicant for the permit has to show legitimate reasons to frequently cross an external land border under the local border traffic regime. The validity of the permit can be up to five years.
Holders of local border traffic permits are able to spend up to 3 months every time they enter the border area of the Schengen country which has issued the permit (this time limit is far more generous than the '90 days in a 180-day period' normally granted to third-country nationals visiting the Schengen Area).
A local border traffic permit scheme has been implemented in Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia for Ukrainian nationals, is being implemented or negotiated in Poland and Lithuania regarding Belarus and Russia (Kaliningrad area), and has also been implemented in a 30 km border zone between Norway and Russia in 2012. See Schengen Area#Local border traffic at external borders.
There is also a tendency to allow more and more one-year multiple-entry visas to Russians – especially by Finland. There are plans in the EU to allow up to 5 years validity on multiple-entry visas for Russians, partly to relieve the work load at embassies.
|Visa waivers maintained exclusively for diplomatic, official and service passports|
Holders of diplomatic and official/service passports of Annex II countries (listed above) do not need a visa, except for:
In addition, holders of diplomatic and official/service passports of the following countries do not need a visa for:
In general, a passenger who transits through one single airport in the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania while remaining airside in the international transit area less than one day will not require a visa (transit privilege). This only applies if the transfer is possible without leaving the international transit area, which depends on the connecting flight and airport layout.
However, on 5 April 2010, common visa requirements for airport transit were introduced by the European Union. Nationals of the following 12 countries are required to hold an airport transit visa (ATV) when transiting through any airport in the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania, even if they remain airside:
However, nationals of the above countries are exempt from airport transit visas if they hold a visa or residence permit issued by an EU single market country, Andorra, Canada, Japan, Monaco, San Marino or the United States, are family members of an EU single market national, hold a diplomatic passport, or are flight crew members.
Additionally, individual Schengen countries can impose airport transit visa requirements for nationals of other countries in urgent cases of mass influx of illegal immigrants. For example, nationals of Syria need ATVs for many but not all Schengen countries.
|Additional nationalities (with ordinary passports) required to have an ATV in some Schengen countries|
Schengen visas can be issued by any member state of the Schengen Area. Travellers must apply to the embassy or consulate of the country which they intend to visit. In cases of travellers visiting multiple countries in the Schengen Area, travellers must apply to their main destination's embassy or consulate. If the main destination cannot be determined, the traveller should apply for the visa at the embassy of the Schengen member state of first entry. Often, external service providers are contracted by certain diplomatic missions to process, collect and return visa applications.
Schengen visa applications may not be submitted more than six months prior to the proposed date of entry into the Schengen Area. All countries' embassies may require applicants to provide biometric identifiers (ten fingerprints and a digital photograph) as part of the visa application process to be stored on the Visa Information System (VIS). Biometric identifiers are not collected from children under the age of 12. Travellers applying for a Schengen visa for the first time must apply in person and are subject to an interview by the consular officers. If biometric identifiers have been provided within the past 59 months, the applicant may not be required to provide biometric identifiers again. Providing that the visa application is admissible and there are no issues with the application, a decision must be given within 15 calendar days of the date on which the application was lodged.
The standard application fee for a Schengen visa is EUR 80. There is a reduced application fee of EUR 40 for children aged 6 to 12. The visa application fee may be waived or reduced in order to 'promote cultural or sporting interests, interests in the field of foreign policy, development policy and other areas of vital public interest, or for humanitarian reasons or because of international obligations'. Where an application is submitted to an external service provider, an additional service fee may have to be paid.
Schengen visas are valid for any country in the Schengen Area unless marked otherwise. Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania also accept Schengen visas (even if limited to a specific country), as well as visas issued by each other, for stays of up to 90 days in a 180-day period (except for nationals of Turkey and Azerbaijan travelling to Cyprus). However, visas issued by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania are not valid for travel to the Schengen Area.
The Schengen Convention and Schengen Borders Code permit member states to require third-country nationals to report their presence to a police station within 3 working days of crossing an internal border. This requirement varies by country and can usually be performed by hotels instead.
The EU has concluded visa facilitation agreements with several countries, which allow facilitated procedures for issuing visas for both EU citizens and nationals of partner countries. The facilitated procedures include faster visa processing times, reduced or no fees, and reduced list of supporting documents. These agreements are also linked to readmission agreements that allow the return of people irregularly residing in the EU.
|Visa facilitation agreements|
|Country||Entry into force|
|Belarus||2020, 1 July|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||2008|
In exceptional cases, single-entry Schengen visas valid for up to 15 days may be issued on arrival at the border. These visas are reserved for individuals who can prove that they were unable to apply for a visa in advance due to time constraints arising out of 'unforeseeable' and 'imperative' reasons as long as they fulfil the regular criteria for the issuing of a Schengen visa. However, if the individual requesting a Schengen visa at the border falls within a category of people for which it is necessary to consult one or more of the central authorities of other Schengen States, they may only be issued a visa at the border in exceptional cases on humanitarian grounds, on grounds of national interest or on account of international obligations (such as the death or sudden serious illness of a close relative or of another close person). In 2017, about 89,000 Schengen visas were issued to travellers on arrival at the border. People trying this way to travel to the Schengen Area can be denied boarding by the airline because of the carrier's responsibility, which penalises airlines if they carry passengers who do not have the correct documentation.
In exceptional cases, Schengen states may issue visas with limited territorial validity (LTV), either specifically naming the state(s) for which it is valid or, inversely, the state(s) for which it is not valid. Holders of LTV visas are only permitted to travel to Schengen states for which it is valid, as well as to Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania.
According to the Schengen Visa Code, member states may issue LTV visas when a consulate deems it justifiable to overcome the three-month limitation in six months, when a member state considers it necessary due to pressing circumstances to derogate from entry conditions as set by Schengen Borders Code, to overcome objections of other member states, or in cases of urgency.
Schengen visas are only issued on travel documents of UN member states, Kosovo, Palestine, Taiwan, Vatican City, the Order of Malta, and certain international organisations (Council of Europe, EU, NATO, Red Cross, UN). Belgium and France also accept the passport of Somaliland. Passports of Abkhazia, Artsakh, Northern Cyprus, South Ossetia, Transnistria and Western Sahara are not accepted.
Most Schengen visas were issued to applicants located in the countries listed below (listed if more than 100,000 visas issued in most recent year). Applicants were not necessarily nationals of these countries.
|Visas issued||Refusal rate||Share of multiple-entry visas||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Share of multiple-entry visas||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Share of multiple-entry visas||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Share of multiple-entry visas|
|United Arab Emirates||174,059||17.9%||55.5%||167,685||16.5%||54.3%||172,822||12.1%||57.9%||192,812||12.0%||46.2%|
|Applications||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Applications||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Applications||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Applications||Visas issued||Refusal rate|
In 2017, the EU adopted a regulation to establish an Entry/Exit System (EES) to record electronically the entry and exit of third-country nationals to and from the Schengen Area in a central database, replacing the manual stamping of passports. The goals are to increase automation of border control and to identify overstayers. As of March 2020, EES is expected to enter into operation in the first quarter of 2022.
The EU also plans to establish a Registered Traveller Programme that would allow pre-screened travellers easier access.
It is anticipated that the start date for ETIAS visa waivers will be the end of 2022, but ETIAS will not be mandatory until 2023. A 6-month grace period is planned to allow eligible travellers to become familiarized with the new regulations. Prospective visitors will need to complete an online application and a EUR7 fee must be paid by those aged 18 to 70. ETIAS is expected to process the vast majority of applications automatically by searching in electronic databases and then provide an immediate response but, in some limited cases, it may take up to 30 days.
The EU requires that all Annex II countries and territories provide visa-free access for 90 days to nationals of all Schengen states and other EU countries implementing the common visa rules (Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, but not Ireland). If an Annex II country is found to not provide full reciprocity, the EU may decide to suspend the visa exemption for certain categories or later all nationals of that country.
Since the adoption of this policy, full reciprocity has been achieved with all Annex II countries except the United States, which still requires visas from nationals of Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania. In November 2014, the Bulgarian government announced that it would not ratify the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership unless the United States lifted visa requirements for its nationals. Since the United States failed to lift the requirements, on 3 March 2017 the European Parliament approved a non-binding resolution calling on the European Commission to revoke the visa-free travel for US nationals to the Schengen Area.
Some Annex II countries and territories also impose minor restrictions on nationals of EU or Schengen states that are not considered a breach of reciprocity by the EU. Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States require an electronic authorisation before travel by air or sea, similar to the EU's own planned ETIAS. Canada also requires a visa from nationals of Romania not holding electronic passports. Israel requires a visa from nationals of Germany born before 1928, which is issued free of charge if they were not involved with the Nazi Party. Montserrat requires an electronic visa from nationals of Croatia.
In general, third-country nationals staying more than 90 days in the Schengen Area as a whole or in Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania require either a long-stay visa for less than a year or a residence permit for longer periods.
Although long-stay visas issued by these countries have a uniform design, the procedures and conditions for issuing them are usually determined by each individual country. For example, some Schengen countries require applications for long-stay visas to be made in the applicant's home country, while other Schengen countries permit them after arrival. Some procedures may vary depending on the applicant's country as well. In some situations, such as for study, the procedures and conditions for long-stay visas have been harmonised among all issuing states. Each country is also free to establish its own conditions for residence permits.
Third-country nationals who are long-term residents of an EU or Schengen state (except Ireland and Denmark) may also acquire the right to move to and settle in another of these states without losing their legal status and social benefits. The Van Der Elst visa rule allows third-country nationals employed in the EU single market to work temporarily in another EU single market country for the same employer under certain conditions.
Some third-country nationals are permitted to stay in the Schengen Area for more than 90 days without the need to apply for a long-stay visa. For example, France does not require nationals of the European microstates to apply for a long-stay visa. Nationals of countries (such as Australia, Canada, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore and the United States) that had entered into visa waiver agreements with individual Schengen states before they implemented the Schengen agreement are permitted to stay for up to 90 days in each of those Schengen states without a long-stay visa (see the 'Rules for Annex II nationals' section above).
In addition to general requirements, Schengen states also set entry conditions for foreign nationals of countries outside the EU single market called the "reference amounts required for the crossing of the external border fixed by national authorities" regarding means of subsistence during their stay.
|Means of subsistence requirements|
|Belgium||EUR45 per day for aliens staying with a private individual; EUR95 per day for aliens staying at a hotel.|
|Bulgaria||EUR50 per day; minimum EUR500 per stay|
|Croatia||EUR100 per day; but EUR50 for aliens possessing a certified guarantee letter, a proof of paid travel arrangements, etc.|
|Czech Republic||EUR40 per day up to 30 days|
|Denmark||DKK350 per day|
|Estonia||EUR78 per day or a letter of invitation|
|Finland||EUR30 per day|
|France||EUR120 per day if holding no proof of accommodation; EUR65 per day if staying at a hotel; EUR32.50 per day if holding proof of accommodation.|
|Germany||EUR45 per day in the form of cash, credit cards and cheques but alternatively a letter of guarantee from the host.|
|Greece||EUR50 per day; minimum total amount of EUR300 for a stay of up to 5 days reduced by 50% for minors|
|Hungary||HUF1000 per entry or letter of invitation, confirmation of accommodation or any other credible proof.|
|Iceland||ISK4,000 per day + ISK20,000 per each entry|
|Italy||EUR269.60 fixed sum for stays up to 5 days (EUR212.81 per person for groups of two and more); 6-10 days: EUR44.93 per day (EUR26.33); 11-20 days: EUR51.64 fixed sum + EUR36.67 per day (EUR25.82 + EUR22.21); 20+ days EUR206.58 fixed sum + EUR27.89 per day (EUR118.79 + EUR17.04).|
|Latvia||EUR14 per day or certified invitation letter|
|Liechtenstein||CHF100 per day; CHF30 for students|
|Lithuania||EUR40 per day|
|Malta||EUR48 per day|
|Netherlands||EUR34 per day|
|Norway||NOK500 per day (indicative for those not staying with friends or relatives)|
|Poland||PLN300 for stay not exceeding 3 days; PLN100 per day by stay exceeding 3 days; PLN20 per day if cost of the stay were paid.|
|Portugal||EUR40 per day + EUR75 per entry|
|Romania||EUR50 per day; minimum EUR500 per stay|
|Slovakia||EUR56 per day (EUR30 for accommodation, EUR4 for breakfast, EUR7.5 for lunch, EUR7.5 for dinner, EUR7 for spending) or a certified invitation letter|
|Slovenia||EUR70; EUR35 for minors accompanied by parents|
|Spain||EUR855.00 minimum amount (for stays of up to 9 days); EUR95.00 per day in excess of 9 days.|
|Sweden||SEK450 per day. Needed proof is a copy of three months of bank statements, or of two years of income tax declaration, if there is no official sponsor with proof of that.|
|Switzerland||CHF100 per day; CHF30 for students|
|Authorities of Austria, Cyprus and Luxembourg decide on a case-by-case basis.
The Netherlands exempts visitors from Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, United States and Vatican City from holding proof of sufficient funds and return tickets. Romania requires visitors from Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Russia, Serbia and Ukraine to hold a medical insurance covering the period of stay. Romania also exempts visitors from Australia, Canada, South Korea and the United States from holding proof of sufficient funds and return tickets.
Ireland has an independent visa policy. It grants visa-free entry to all Schengen Annex II nationalities, except for Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Colombia, East Timor, Georgia, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Micronesia, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Palau, Peru, Serbia, Ukraine and Venezuela. It also grants visa-free entry to several additional countries – Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Eswatini, Fiji, Guyana, Lesotho, Maldives, Nauru and South Africa. Visas for Ireland and for the Schengen Area are not valid for each other. Ireland is part of the Common Travel Area and maintains freedom of movement with the United Kingdom in addition to with EU and Schengen countries.
The British overseas territory of Akrotiri and Dhekelia has open borders with Cyprus and follows the visa policy of the Schengen Area, but requires permits for stays longer than 28 days per 12-month period. These rules were not affected by Brexit.
The Faroe Islands and Greenland have the same list of nationalities exempt from visas as the Schengen Area, and arrivals from the Schengen Area are not subject to border checks. However, Schengen visas are not valid there, so nationalities that are not exempt need separate visas for these territories. These regulations are due to a special agreement under the Nordic Passport Union.
Svalbard is an entirely visa-free zone. Travellers to and from Svalbard must present a passport or national ID card. Travellers who need a visa for the Schengen Area must have such visa if they travel to Svalbard via mainland Norway, and this must be a double-entry visa if they also return from Svalbard via mainland Norway.
Countries applying to join the European Union are obliged to adopt the EU's visa policy no later than three months before they formally join the Union. Schengen countries give visa-free access to nationals of all European Union candidate and applicant states except Turkey. Candidate states Albania, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia maintain similar visa policies to the Schengen Area with some notable exceptions regarding countries that were added to the Annex II more recently and additional nationalities not listed in Schengen Annex II, while Turkey still requires visas from nationals of Cyprus. Bosnia and Herzegovina as an applicant country also has its visa policy mostly aligned with the Schengen Area.
Schengen visas that are valid for further travel are accepted as substitute visas for national visas in several other countries.
|Validity of Schengen visas for other countries|
The vast majority of foreign travellers benefit from the "transit privilege" - if during a stopover at a German airport, you do not leave the International Airport Area and if the destination is not in a Schengen country, you do not need a transit visa.