Voiced Alveolo-palatal Affricate
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Voiced Alveolo-palatal Affricate
Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
IPA Number216
Entity (decimal)ʥ
Unicode (hex)U+02A5
Audio sample

The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨d⟩, ⟨d⟩, ⟨⟩ and ⟨⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are d_z\ and J\_z\, though transcribing the stop component with ⟨?⟩ (J\ in X-SAMPA) is rare. The tie bar may be omitted, yielding ⟨d?⟩ or ⟨⟩ in the IPA and dz\ or J\z\ in X-SAMPA.

Neither [d] nor [?] are a completely narrow transcription of the stop component, which can be narrowly transcribed as [d] (retracted and palatalized ), [] or [] (both symbols denote an advanced ). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are d_-' or d_-_j and J\_+, respectively. There is also a dedicated symbol ⟨?⟩, which is not a part of the IPA. Therefore, narrow transcriptions of the voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate include [d], [], [] and [].

This affricate used to have a dedicated symbol ⟨?⟩, which was one of the six dedicated symbols for affricates in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is the sibilant equivalent of voiced palatal affricate.


Features of the voiced alveolo-palatal affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bengali ? [dk?on] 'when' See Bengali phonology
Catalan[1] All dialects metge ['medd] 'doctor' See Catalan phonology
Valencian joc ['dk] 'game'
Chinese Southern Min ? / ji?t [dit] 'sun'
Wu ? [dy] 'he/she/it'
Irish Some dialects[2][3][4] Dia [di?] 'god' Realization of the palatalized alveolar stop /d?/ in dialects such as Erris, Teelin and Tourmakeady.[2][3][4] See Irish phonology
Japanese / chijin [tid?] 'acquaintance' See Japanese phonology
Korean / pyeonji [p?j?:ndi] 'letter' See Korean phonology
Polish[5] d?wi?k 'sound' See Polish phonology
Romanian Banat dialect[6] des [des] 'frequent' Allophone of /d/ before front vowels. Corresponds to in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian ['d?o?d b?] 'daughter would' Allophone of /t/ before voiced consonants. See Russian phonology
Sema[7] aji [à?dì] 'blood' Possible allophone of /?/ before /i, e/; can be realized as [? ~ ? ~ d] instead.[7]
Serbo-Croatian[8][9] ? / ?avo [dâo?:] 'devil' Merges with /d/ in most Croatian and some Bosnian accents. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Uzbek[10] [example needed]
Xumi Lower[11] [Hd?] 'water'
Upper[12] [Hd]
Yi ? / jji [di?] 'bee'

See also



  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363-379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157[permanent dead link]
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjan?i? Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381-396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169[permanent dead link]
  • de Búrca, Seán (1958), The Irish of Tourmakeady, Co. Mayo, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 0-901282-49-9
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103-107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Mhac an Fhailigh, Éamonn (1968), The Irish of Erris, Co. Mayo, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 0-901282-02-2
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar, Uralic and Altaic Series, 18, Bloomington: Indiana University
  • Teo, Amos B. (2014), A phonological and phonetic description of Sumi, a Tibeto-Burman language of Nagaland (PDF), Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 978-1-922185-10-5
  • Wagner, Heinrich (1959), Gaeilge Theilinn (in Irish), Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 1-85500-055-5
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7
  • Kordi?, Snje?ana (2006), Serbo-Croatian, Languages of the World/Materials; 148, Munich & Newcastle: Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-89586-161-1
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lon?ari?, Mijo; Horga, Damir; ?kari?, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66-69, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0

External links

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