Voiced Retroflex Approximant
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Voiced Retroflex Approximant
Voiced retroflex approximant
IPA Number152
Entity (decimal)ɻ
Unicode (hex)U+027B
Braille? (braille pattern dots-256)? (braille pattern dots-3456)
Audio sample

The voiced retroflex approximant is a type of consonant used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\`. The IPA symbol is a turned lowercase letter r with a rightward hook protruding from the lower right of the letter.


A schematic mid-sagittal section of an articulation of a voiced retroflex approximant [?].

Features of the voiced retroflex approximant:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Mandarin ? ròu [o?] 'meat' Apical.[1] Can be transcribed as fricative . See Standard Chinese phonology
Derung Tvrung [t?u] 'Derung'
Dutch Some Netherlandic speakers[2] eerst [?:?st] 'first' Tongue bunched and root retracted. Occurs only in syllable coda. See Dutch phonology
English Some American dialects red [d] 'red' Labialized (pronounced with lips rounded). See Pronunciation of English /r/
Some Hiberno-English dialects
Some West Country English
Enindhilyagwa angwura [a?wu?a] 'fire'
Faroese[3] hoyrdi [h?i] 'heard' Allophone of /?/.[3] Sometimes voiceless .[3] See Faroese phonology
Greek Cretan (Sfakia and Mylopotamos variations) region[4] ?? la ['?a?a] 'milk' Intervocalic allophone of /l/ before /a o u/. Recessive. See Modern Greek phonology
Kannada Some dialects ? [ke] 'to rot'
Malayalam [a?'?m] 'Depth'
Mapudungun[5] rayen ['jën] 'flower' Possible realization of /?/; may be or instead.[5]
Pashto [so?] 'cold' Allophone of retroflex lateral flap //. See Pashto phonology
Portuguese Many Centro-Sul registers cartas ['ka?ts] 'letters' Allophone of rhotic consonants (and sometimes /l/) in the syllable coda. Mainly[6] found in rural São Paulo, Paraná, south of Minas Gerais and surrounding areas, with the more common and prestigious realization in metropolitan areas being and/or rhotic vowel instead. As with , it appeared as a mutation of [?].[7][8][9] See Portuguese phonology.
Caipira temporal [t?p?'?a?] 'rainstorm'
Conservative Piracicabano grato ['g?at] 'thankful' (m.)
Tamil[10] 'Tamil' See Tamil phonology. May be merged with for many modern speakers.
Western Desert Pitjantjatjara dialect Ulu?u [?l] 'Uluru'
Yaghan rho ['wa?o] 'cave'

See also


  1. ^ Lee, W. S. (1999). An articulatory and acoustical analysis of the syllable-initial sibilants and approximant in Beijing Mandarin. Proceedings of the XIVth ICPhS, Univ. of California, Berkeley, San Francisco, pp. 413-416. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/863d/3ca5704291d4ec2c0e95ea409eb6599094ce.pdf
  2. ^ Sebregts, Koen (2014). The Sociophonetics of and Phonology of Dutch r (PDF). LOT. ISBN 978-94-6093-161-1.
  3. ^ a b c Árnason (2011), p. 115.
  4. ^ Trudgill (1989), pp. 18-19.
  5. ^ a b Sadowsky et al. (2013), p. 90.
  6. ^ Nas trilhas do -r retroflexo Silvia Figueiredo Brandão. December 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
  7. ^ (in Portuguese) Acoustic-phonetic characteristics of the Brazilian Portuguese's retroflex /r/: data from respondents in Pato Branco, Paraná. Irineu da Silva Ferraz. Pages 19-21
  8. ^ (in Portuguese) Syllable coda /r/ in the "capital" of the paulista hinterland: sociolinguistic analisis. Cândida Mara Britto LEITE. Page 111 (page 2 in the attached PDF)
  9. ^ (in Portuguese) Callou, Dinah. Leite, Yonne. "Iniciação à Fonética e à Fonologia". Jorge Zahar Editora 2001, p. 24
  10. ^ Keane (2004), p. 111.


  • Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-922931-4
  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 111-116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549
  • Sadowsky, Scott; Painequeo, Héctor; Salamanca, Gastón; Avelino, Heriberto (2013), "Mapudungun", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 87-96, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000369
  • Trudgill, Peter (1989), "The Sociophonetics of /l/ in the Greek of Sphakiá", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 15 (2): 18-22, doi:10.1017/S0025100300002942

External links

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