|Voiced velar approximant|
The voiced velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
The consonant is not present in English, but approximates to the sound of a 'g' with the throat kept open, or like making a 'w' sound without the lips touching. The voiced velar approximant can in many cases be considered the semivocalic counterpart of the close back unrounded vowel [?]. ⟨?⟩ and ⟨⟩ with the non-syllabic diacritic are used in different transcription systems to represent the same sound.
The symbol for the velar approximant originates from ⟨?⟩, but with a vertical line. Compare ⟨u⟩ and ⟨?⟩ for the labio-palatal approximant.
Features of the voiced velar approximant:
|Aragonese||caixigo||[kaj'?io?]||'oak tree'||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding; allophone of /?/.|
|Astur-Leonese||Asturian||[example needed]||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding; allophone of /?/.|
|Catalan||aigua||['ajw?]||'water'||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding; allophone of /?/. See Catalan phonology|
|Cherokee||?? wa-tsi||[?adi]||'watch'||Found only in the Western dialect. Its equivalent in other dialects is [w]. Also represented by ?, ?, ?, ?, and ?|
|Danish||Older speakers||talg||['ts?al]||'tallow'||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding. Still used by some older speakers in high register, much more commonly than a fricative . Depending on the environment, it corresponds to [w] or in young speakers of contemporary Standard Danish. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Western East Flemish||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding. Corresponds to a fricative in other dialects.|
|French||Belgian||ara||[a?a]||'macaw'||Intervocalic allophone of /?/ for some speakers, unless /?/ is realized as a liaison consonant - then, most often, it is realized as a trill . See French phonology|
|Galician||auga||['?w]||'water'||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding; allophone of /?/. See Galician phonology|
|Greek||Cypriot||?||[ma?a'zi]||'shop'||Allophone of /?/.|
|Guarani||gotyo||[?o't?o]||'near, close to'||Contrasts with [w]|
|Hiw||ter?og||[t]||'peace'||Phoneme realised  in onsets, [?] in codas. Contrasts with /w/ and with //.|
|Ibibio||ufok?||[úf]||[translation needed]||Intervocalic allophone of /k/; may be a uvular tap instead.|
|Icelandic||saga||['s?ä:ä]||'saga'||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding. See Icelandic phonology|
|Irish||naoi||[ni:]||'nine'||Occurs only between broad consonants and front vowels. See Irish phonology|
|Korean||/ uisa||[?is?]||'doctor'||Occurs only before /i/. See Korean phonology|
|Mwotlap||haghag||[ha?ha?]||'sit'||Realised [?] or . Contrasts with [w].|
|Shipibo||igi||[ii?]||[translation needed]||Continuant consonant with variable frication and unspecified rounding; allophone of /k/ in certain high-frequency morphemes.|
|Spanish||pagar||'to pay'||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding; allophone of /?/. See Spanish phonology|
|Swedish||Central Standard||agronom||'agronomist'||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding; allophone of /?/ in casual speech. See Swedish phonology|
|Tagalog||igriega||[i:'je?]||'y (letter)'||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding; intervocalic allophone of /?/. See Tagalog phonology|
|Venetian||góndo?a||['?o?do?a]||'gondola'||See Venetian language|
|Vietnamese||Southern||gà||'chicken'||Typical realization of // or /?/ in other dialects. Variant is in complementary distribution before open vowels.|
The sound in Japanese often denoted by ⟨w⟩ in IPA notation and described as unrounded is actually pronounced with lip compression and is therefore labio-velar, albeit with acoustic differences from other labio-velar consonants.
|Spanish||seguir||'to follow'||Lenited allophone of /?/ before front vowels; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩. See Spanish phonology|
|Turkish||Standard prescriptive||dü?ün||['d?y?jy?n?]||'marriage'||Either post-palatal or palatal; phonetic realization of /?/ (also transcribed as /?/) before front vowels. See Turkish phonology|
Some languages have a voiced velar approximant that is unspecified for rounding, and therefore cannot be considered the semivocalic equivalent of either [?] or its rounded counterpart . Examples of such languages are Catalan, Galician and Spanish, in which the approximant consonant (not semivowel) unspecified for rounding appears as an allophone of /?/.
Eugenio Martínez Celdrán describes the voiced velar approximant consonant as follows:
As for the symbol [?], it is quite evidently inappropriate for representing the Spanish voiced velar approximant consonant. Many authors have pointed out the fact that [?] is not rounded; for example, Pullum & Ladusaw (1986:98) state that 'the sound in question can be described as a semi-vowel (glide) with the properties "high", "back", and "unrounded"'. They even establish an interesting parallelism: 'the sound can be regarded as an unrounded '. It is evident, then, that [?] is not an adequate symbol for Spanish. First of all, because it has never been taken into consideration that there is a diphthong in words like paga 'pay', vago 'lazy', lego 'lay', etc., and, secondly, because this sound is rounded when it precedes rounded vowels. Besides, it would be utterly wrong to transcribe the word jugo 'juice' with [?] *['?u?o], because the pronunciation of that consonant between two rounded vowels is completely rounded whereas [?] is not. (...) The symbol I have always proposed is , the correlate to the other central approximants in Spanish, [ ð?] (Martínez Celdrán 1991, 1996:47). This coincides with Ball & Rahilly (1999:90), whose example for the three approximants is the Spanish word abogado 'lawyer' (see figure 1). Ball & Rahilly too criticise in a footnote the confusion between these symbols: 'The difference between an approximant version of the voiced velar fricative [?], and the velar semi-vowel [?] is that the latter requires spread lips, and must have a slightly more open articulatory channel so that it becomes if prolonged' (p. 189, fn. 1).
There is a parallel problem with transcribing the palatal approximant.
The symbol ⟨⟩ may not display properly in all browsers. In that case, ⟨⟩ should be substituted. In broader transcriptions, the lowering diacritic may be omitted altogether, so that the symbol is rendered ⟨?⟩, i.e. as if it represented the corresponding fricative.