Voiced Velar Lateral Approximant
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Voiced Velar Lateral Approximant
Voiced velar lateral approximant
?
IPA Number158
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʟ
Unicode (hex)U+029F
X-SAMPAL\
Braille? (braille pattern dots-35)? (braille pattern dots-123)
Audio sample

The voiced velar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used as a distinct consonant in a very small number[1] of spoken languages in the world. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩ (since 1989) and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is L\.

The velar laterals of the world often involve a prestopped realization [].[2]

Features

Features of the voiced velar lateral approximant:

The velar lateral [?] involves no contact of the tip of the tongue with the roof of the mouth: just like for the velar stop [?], the only contact takes place between the back of the tongue and the velum. This contrasts with the velarized alveolar lateral approximant [?] - also known as the dark l in English feel [fi:?] - for which the apex touches the alveolar ridge.[3]

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Southern US[4] middle ['m?d] 'middle' May occur before or after a velar consonant, as in milk and cycle, when assimilating /?/, as in wolf, or before labial consonants, as in help. See English phonology
full ['f:] 'full'
Hiw[5] r?evr?ov [?] 'evening' Realized as prestopped [].
Korean / dalguji [tudi] 'cart' Allophone of final consonant [?] ⟨?⟩ before velar consonants. See Korean phonology.
Melpa[6] pa?a [pa?a] 'fence' Realized as prestopped [].
Mid-Wahgi[7] aglagle [a?a?e] 'dizzy' Realized as prestopped [].

See also

Notes

  1. ^ François (2010), pp. 422-426.
  2. ^ François (2010), p. 425.
  3. ^ François (2010), p. 423.
  4. ^ Wells (1982), p. 551.
  5. ^ François (2010), p. 419.
  6. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 169.
  7. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 73.

References

  • François, Alexandre (2010), "Phonotactics and the prestopped velar lateral of Hiw: resolving the ambiguity of a complex segment" (PDF), Phonology, 27 (3): 393-434, doi:10.1017/s0952675710000205
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (2nd ed.), Blackwell
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing
  • Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i-xx, 467-674). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52128541-0 .

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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