A voiceless alveolar trill differs from the voiced alveolar trill /r/ only by the vibrations of the vocal cord. It occurs in a few languages, usually alongside the voiced version, as a similar phoneme or an allophone.
Proto-Indo-European *sr developed into a sound spelled ⟨?⟩, with the letter for /r/ and the diacritic for /h/, in Ancient Greek. It was probably a voiceless alveolar trill and became the regular word-initial allophone of /r/ in standard Attic Greek that has disappeared in Modern Greek.
Features of the voiceless alveolar trill:
|Dharumbal||barhi||['bar?i]||'stone'||Contrasts with /r/.|
|Estonian||[example needed]||Word-final allophone of /r/ after /t, s, h/. See Estonian phonology|
|Icelandic||hrafn||['r?apn?]||'raven'||Contrasts with /r/. For some speakers it may actually be a voiceless flap. Also illustrates [n?]. See Icelandic phonology|
|Lezgian||??/kr?ar||['k?r?tar]||'horns'||Allophone of /r/ between voiceless obstruents|
|Limburgish||Hasselt dialect||geer||[?e:r?]||'odour'||Possible word-final allophone of /r/; may be uvular instead.|
|Moksha||/närhn'e||['nar?n?æ]||'these grasses'||Contrasts with /r/? ['narn?æ] "short grass". It has the palatalized counterpart /r/? ['marn?æ] "these apples", but ['mar?n?æ] "little apple"|
|Nivkh||Amur dialect||?/?y||[r]||'door'||Contrasts with /r/. In the Sakhalin dialect, typically fricated ⟨r⟩.|
|Northern Qiang||[example needed]||Contrasts with /r/|
|Polish||krta?||['kr?tä]||'larynx'||Allophone of /r/ when surrounded by voiceless consonants, or word finally after voiceless consonants. See Polish phonology|
|Ukrainian||??/centr||[tsn?t?r?]||'centre'||Word-final allophone of /r/ after . See Ukrainian phonology|
|Welsh||Rhagfyr||['r?a?v?r]||'December'||Contrasts with /r/. See Welsh phonology|
|Zapotec||Quiegolani||rsil||[r?sil]||'early'||Allophone of /r/.|
The voiceless alveolar fricative trill is not known to occur as a phoneme in any language, except possibly the East Sakhalin dialect of Nivkh. It occurs allophonically in Czech.
Features of the voiceless alveolar fricative trill:
|Czech||t?i sta||['t?rs?t?ä]||'three hundred'||Allophone of /r?/ after voiceless consonants; may be a tapped fricative instead. See Czech phonology|
|Norwegian||Areas around Narvik||norsk||[n?rk]||'Norwegian'||Allophone of the sequence /?s/ before voiceless consonants.|
|Some subdialects of Trøndersk|
|Nivkh||(East) Sakhalin dialect||?||[r]||'door'||Contrasts with /r/. In the Amur dialect, typically realized as ⟨r?⟩.|
|Polish||Some dialects||przyj||['prj?t]||'to come'||Allophone of /r?/ after voiceless consonants for speakers that do not merge it with /?/. Present in areas from Starogard Gda?ski to Malbork and those south, west and northwest of them, area from Lubawa to Olsztyn to Olecko to Dzia?dowo, south and east from Wiele?, around Wo?omin, southeast from Ostrów Mazowiecka and west from Siedlce, from Brzeg to Opole and those north of them, and roughly from Racibórz to Nowy Targ. Most speakers, including speakers of standard Polish, pronounce it the same as /?/, and speakers maintaining the distinction (which is mostly the elderly) sporadically do so too.|
|Silesian||Gmina Istebna||[example needed]||Allophone of /r?/ after voiceless consonants. It's pronounced the same as /?/ in most Polish dialects|