Voiceless Labialized Velar Approximant
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Voiceless Labialized Velar Approximant
Voiceless labial-velar fricative
IPA Number169
Entity (decimal)ʍ
Unicode (hex)U+028D
Braille? (braille pattern dots-235)? (braille pattern dots-2456)
Audio sample

The voiceless labial-velar (or labial-velar) fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨x⟩, or ⟨?⟩, the latter of which is also ambiguously defined as a voiceless approximant [w?].[1] The symbol is occasionally used for a labialized voiceless velar fricative [x?].

English /?/ is generally an approximant or an [hw] sequence, not a fricative,[2] but Scots /?/ has been described as a fricative,[3] especially older Scots, where it was [xw].[4] Maddieson and Ladefoged were unable to confirm that any language has fricatives produced at two places of articulation.[5] They conclude that "if it is a fricative, it is better described as a voiceless labialized velar fricative."[6]


Features of the voiceless labial-velar fricative:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Irish whine [?n] 'whine' described as a labial fricative[7]
Scots older pronunciation whine [xwan][4] 'whine' A semivowel in standard modern Scots. Northern dialects have [f] instead.
Washo Wá?i ['x?a?i] 'he's the one who's doing it' a labialized velar fricative

See also


  1. ^ ?u?tar?i?, Rastislav; Komar, Smiljana; Petek, Bojan (1999), "Slovene", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 136, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  2. ^ Ladefoged, Peter (2006), A Course in Phonetics (5th ed.), Fort Worth: Harcourt College Publishers, p. 68.
  3. ^ Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA: Cambridge University. 2007. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0.
  4. ^ a b Johnston, Paul (1997). "Regional Variation". In Jones, Charles (ed.). The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 499, 510.
  5. ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 330-332. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  6. ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 330-326. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  7. ^ "Irish English and Ulster English" (PDF). p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.


External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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