Voiceless Labialized Velar Approximant
Get Voiceless Labialized Velar Approximant essential facts below. View Videos or join the Voiceless Labialized Velar Approximant discussion. Add Voiceless Labialized Velar Approximant to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Voiceless Labialized Velar Approximant
Voiceless labial-velar fricative
?
x
IPA Number169
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʍ
Unicode (hex)U+028D
X-SAMPAW
Braille? (braille pattern dots-235)? (braille pattern dots-2456)
Audio sample

The voiceless labial-velar (or labial-velar) fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨x⟩, or ⟨?⟩, the latter of which is also ambiguously defined as a voiceless approximant [w?].[1] The symbol is occasionally used for a labialized voiceless velar fricative [x?].

English /?/ is generally an approximant or an [hw] sequence, not a fricative,[2] but Scots /?/ has been described as a fricative,[3] especially older Scots, where it was [xw].[4] Maddieson and Ladefoged were unable to confirm that any language has fricatives produced at two places of articulation.[5] They conclude that "if it is a fricative, it is better described as a voiceless labialized velar fricative."[6]

Features

Features of the voiceless labial-velar fricative:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Irish whine [?n] 'whine' described as a labial fricative[7]
Scots older pronunciation whine [xwan][4] 'whine' A semivowel in standard modern Scots. Northern dialects have [f] instead.
Washo Wá?i ['x?a?i] 'he's the one who's doing it' a labialized velar fricative

See also

Notes

  1. ^ ?u?tar?i?, Rastislav; Komar, Smiljana; Petek, Bojan (1999), "Slovene", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 136, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  2. ^ Ladefoged, Peter (2006), A Course in Phonetics (5th ed.), Fort Worth: Harcourt College Publishers, p. 68.
  3. ^ Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA: Cambridge University. 2007. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0.
  4. ^ a b Johnston, Paul (1997). "Regional Variation". In Jones, Charles (ed.). The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 499, 510.
  5. ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 330-332. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  6. ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 330-326. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  7. ^ "Irish English and Ulster English" (PDF). p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.

References

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Voiceless_labialized_velar_approximant
 



 



 
Music Scenes