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Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship

Województwo warmi?sko-mazurskie
Flag of Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
Coat of arms of Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
Coat of arms
Location within Poland
Location within Poland
Division into counties
Division into counties
Coordinates (Olsztyn): 53°47?N 20°30?E / 53.783°N 20.500°E / 53.783; 20.500
 o VoivodeArtur Chojecki (PiS)
 o MarshalGustaw Brzezin (PSL)
 o Total24,191.8 km2 (9,340.5 sq mi)
 o Total1,425,967
 o Density59/km2 (150/sq mi)
 o Urban
 o Rural
ISO 3166 codePL-28
Vehicle registrationN
HDI (2017)0.825[1]
very high · 16th

Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship or Warmia-Masuria Province[2] or Warmia-Mazury Province (in Polish: Województwo warmi?sko-mazurskie, [v?j?'vut?stf? var'mi?sk? ma'zursk] is a voivodeship (province) in northeastern Poland. Its capital and largest city is Olsztyn. The voivodeship has an area of 24,192 km2 (9,341 sq mi) and a population of 1,425,967 (as of 2019).

The Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship was created on 1 January 1999, from the entire Olsztyn Voivodeship, the western half of Suwa?ki Voivodeship and part of Elbl?g Voivodeship, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. The province's name derives from two historic regions, Warmia and Masuria.

The province borders the Podlaskie Voivodeship to the east, the Masovian Voivodeship to the south, the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship to the south-west, the Pomeranian Voivodeship to the west, the Vistula Lagoon to the northwest, and the Kaliningrad Oblast (an exclave of Russia) to the north. Its borders largely overlap with the southern two-thirds of former East Prussia, which was assigned to Poland after World War II.


The region was originally inhabited by the Old Prussian clan of the Warmians from whom the name Warmia originated. During the northern Crusade, the Old Prussians were conquered by the Teutonic Order and their land was granted to the order by the pope and the region became part of the State of the Teutonic Order. The Order encouraged the colonization by German settlers in Warmia (Ostsiedlung) and Polish colonists from the region of Masovia, called Masurians (Mazurzy), hence the name Masuria. The Old Prussians became assimilated into the newcomers and thus became extinct.

Battle of Grunwald, painting by Jan Matejko (1878)

During the Teutonic rule, the region experienced a process of urbanization and economic boost due to the expansion of the Hanseatic League into the region. The Order later attacked their former ally Poland and conquered the region of Pomerelia, thus entered a long-lasting conflict with Poland, which subsequently entered an alliance with Lithuania. In Masuria, the Poles and Lithuanians defeated the Order at the Battle of Grunwald. The wars finally resulted in a rebellion of the urban population of Pomerelia and Warmia, who were affected by the Teuton's numerous wars; upon their request the region was incorporated to Poland by King Casimir IV Jagiellon, and after the Thirteen Years' War it remained under Polish suzerainty, but was divided into two parts: Elbl?g and Warmia were incorporated directly into the Kingdom of Poland, Masuria became a Polish fief under the control of the Teutonic Order.

Elbl?g was one of the main port cities of the Kingdom of Poland and one of the largest and most influential cities in the entire Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

The state of the Teutonic Order ceased to exist in 1525 when Grandmaster Albert Hohenzollern introduced secularisation, proclaimed the Duchy of Prussia and became a vassal of Sigismund I of Poland. The Prussian line of Hohenzollern was extinct by 1618 with the death of Albert Frederick and the Duchy was inherited by the Brandenburgian line; Prussia simultaneously entered a personal union with the electorate of Brandenburg known as Brandenburg-Prussia, remaining under Polish suzerainty until the Treaty of Oliva in 1660. The throne was inherited by Frederick I of Prussia who wanted to unite the Duchy with Brandenburg and also wanted to proclaim himself king of Prussia and therefore participated in the Russian-initiated Partitions of Poland in which Warmia was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia, and henceforth became part of the newly established province of East Prussia until 1945. Together with the rest of the Kingdom, the region became part of the North German Confederation, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, and Nazi Germany. After the end of World War II, both the German as well as the Slavic Masurian population were expelled by the Polish government. In 1914, the province turned into a battlefield, seeing notable battles such as the Battle of Tannenberg as part of the Eastern Front of World War I.

The Lidzbark Warmi?ski Castle is considered to be a great artistic and historical value in the world

Amongst the most visited sights is the Masurian Lake District, which contains more than 2,000 lakes, including the largest lakes of Poland, ?niardwy and Mamry. Other recognizable landmarks are the Warmian castles (Lidzbark Warmi?ski Castle, Pienino Castle, Olsztyn Castle) and the Cathedral Hill in Frombork, where Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus lived and worked. The Lidzbark Warmi?ski Castle was later the residence of Ignacy Krasicki, nicknamed the Prince of Polish Poets. The Grunwald battlefield in Masuria is site of the annual reenactment of one of the largest battles of Medieval Europe. ?wi?ta Lipka in Masuria and Gietrzwa?d in Warmia are popular pilgrimage sites.

The Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship has the largest number of ethnic Ukrainians living in Poland[3] due to forced relocations (such as Operation Vistula) carried out by the Soviet and Polish Communist authorities.

Ethnic and religious structure

In year 1824, shortly before its merger with West Prussia, the population of East Prussia was 1,080,000 people.[4] Of that number, according to Karl Andree, Germans were slightly more than half, while 280,000 (~26%) were ethnically Polish and 200,000 (~19%) were ethnically Lithuanian.[5] As of year 1819 there were also 20,000 strong ethnic Kursenieki and Latvian minorities as well as 2,400 Jews, according to Georg Hassel.[6] Similar numbers are given by August von Haxthausen in his 1839 book, with a breakdown by county.[7] However, the majority of East Prussian Polish and Lithuanian inhabitants were Lutherans, not Roman Catholics like their ethnic kinsmen across the border in the Russian Empire. Only in Southern Warmia (German: Ermland) Catholic Poles - so called Warmiaks (not to be confused with predominantly Protestant Masurians) - comprised the majority of population, numbering 26,067 people (~81%) in county Allenstein (Polish: Olsztyn) in 1837.[7] Another minority in 19th-century East Prussia, were ethnically Russian Old Believers, also known as Philipponnen - their main town was Eckersdorf (Wojnowo).[8][9][10]

In year 1817, East Prussia had 796,204 Evangelical Christians, 120,123 Roman Catholics, 864 Mennonites and 2,389 Jews.[11]

Cities and towns

Olsztyn is the capital of the Voivodeship and the largest city of Warmia
The former royal city of Elbl?g is the largest city in the western part of the Voivodeship
E?k is the largest city of Masuria
Ostróda is the largest city in the western part of Masuria
Miko?ajki with its well-known marina

The Voivodeship contains 50 cities and towns. These are listed below in descending order of population (according to official figures for 2019):[12]

  1. Olsztyn (172,194)
  2. Elbl?g (119,760)
  3. E?k (62,006)
  4. I?awa (33,322)
  5. Ostróda (32,947)
  6. Gi?ycko (29,335)
  7. K?trzyn (27,212)
  8. Bartoszyce (23,482)
  9. Szczytno (23,267)
  10. Mr?gowo (21,656)
  11. Dzia?dowo (21,279)
  12. Pisz (19,277)
  13. Braniewo (17,040)
  14. Olecko (16,442)
  15. Lidzbark Warmi?ski (15,728)
  16. Mor?g (13,793)
  17. Nidzica (13,762)
  18. Go?dap (13,716)
  19. Pask (12,160)
  20. W?gorzewo (11,328)
  21. Nowe Miasto Lubawskie (10,891)
  22. Biskupiec (10,598)
  23. Lubawa (10,387)
  24. Dobre Miasto (10,208)
  25. Orneta (8,772)
  26. Lidzbark (7,794)
  27. Olsztynek (7,561)
  28. Barczewo (7,513)
  29. Susz (5,560)
  30. Orzysz (5,546)
  31. Reszel (4,532)
  32. Ruciane-Nida (4,454)
  33. Korsze (4,206)
  34. Bia?a Piska (4,024)
  35. Górowo I?aweckie (3,951)
  36. Miko?ajki (3,826)
  37. Jeziorany (3,190)
  38. Wielbark (3,035)
  39. Ryn (2,851)
  40. Pienino (2,721)
  41. Tolkmicko (2,689)
  42. Mi?akowo (2,548)
  43. Pasym (2,503)
  44. Mi?om?yn (2,436)
  45. Bisztynek (2,370)
  46. Frombork (2,332)
  47. Zalewo (2,145)
  48. Kisielice (2,098)
  49. S?popol (1,958)
  50. M?ynary (1,772)

Administrative division

Warmian-Masurian Provincial Assembly building in Olsztyn

Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship is divided into 21 counties (powiaty): 2 city counties and 19 land counties. These are further divided into 116 gminas.

The counties are listed in the following table (ordering within categories is by decreasing population).

English and
Polish names
Seat Other towns Total
City counties
Olsztyn 88 172,194 1
Elbl?g 80 119,760 1
Land counties
Olsztyn County
powiat olszty?ski
2,840 126,334 Olsztyn * Dobre Miasto, Biskupiec, Olsztynek, Barczewo, Jeziorany 12
Ostróda County
powiat ostródzki
1,765 104,526 Ostróda Mor?g, Mi?akowo, Mi?om?yn 9
I?awa County
powiat i?awski
1,385 92,933 I?awa Lubawa, Susz, Kisielice, Zalewo 7
E?k County
powiat e?cki
1,112 91,446 E?k 5
Szczytno County
powiat szczycie?ski
1,933 69,678 Szczytno Pasym, Wielbark 8
K?trzyn County
powiat k?trzy?ski
1,213 62,536 K?trzyn Reszel, Korsze 6
Dzia?dowo County
powiat dzia?dowski
953 65,288 Dzia?dowo Lidzbark 6
Bartoszyce County
powiat bartoszycki
1,309 57,642 Bartoszyce Górowo I?aweckie, Bisztynek, S?popol 6
Pisz County
powiat piski
1,776 56,328 Pisz Orzysz, Ruciane-Nida, Bia?a Piska 4
Gi?ycko County
powiat gi?ycki
1,119 56,661 Gi?ycko Ryn 6
Elbl?g County
powiat elbl?ski
1,431 57,395 Elbl?g * Pask, Tolkmicko, M?ynary 9
Mr?gowo County
powiat mr?gowski
1,065 49,970 Mr?gowo Miko?ajki 5
Braniewo County
powiat braniewski
1,205 41,223 Braniewo Pienino, Frombork 7
Nowe Miasto County
powiat nowomiejski
695 43,900 Nowe Miasto Lubawskie 5
Lidzbark County
powiat lidzbarski
924 41,311 Lidzbark Warmi?ski Orneta 5
Olecko County
powiat olecki
874 34,281 Olecko 4
Nidzica County
powiat nidzicki
961 32,940 Nidzica 4
Go?dap County
powiat go?dapski
772 26,825 Go?dap 3
W?gorzewo County
powiat w?gorzewski
693 22,796 W?gorzewo 3
* seat not part of the county


Palaces and Gothic castles, former seats of the Teutonic Order, seats of Chapter houses and bishops provide a number of attractions for tourists. Gothic churches such as the Archcathedral of Frombork and the collegiate church in Dobre Miasto, as well as churches in Orneta and K?trzyn delight visitors with the uniqueness of their architectonic details. In collections of the Warmia and Mazury Museum in Olsztyn, visitors can find numerous tokens from the time when Nicolaus Copernicus lived in Warmia.[13]

Protected areas

Seksty Lake in the Masurian Landscape Park

Protected areas in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship include eight areas designated as Landscape Parks, as listed below:

The ?uknajno Lake nature reserve (part of Masurian Landscape Park) is a protected wetland site under the Ramsar convention, as well as being designated by UNESCO as a biosphere reserve.

International relations

Twin towns - sister cities

The Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship is twinned with:


Emoji flag

Unicode consortium defined a way for software vendors to encode regional flags in their Emoji 5.0 standard in 2017. Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship flag would be represented as U+1F3F4, U+E0070, U+E006C, U+E0032, U+E0038, U+E007F, i.e. 🏴󠁰󠁬󠀲󠀸󠁿, somewhat based on the PL-28 ISO 3166-2:PL code. Between the standard publication in 2017 and ISO 3166-2:PL update in 2018 the code was PL-WN, therefore the corresponding flag sequence would be U+1F3F4, U+E0070, U+E006C, U+E0077, U+E006E, U+E007F, i.e. 🏴󠁰󠁬󠁷󠁮󠁿.

See also


  1. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018.
  2. ^ Arkadiusz Belczyk,T?umaczenie polskich nazw geograficznych na j?zyk angielski [Translation of Polish Geographical Names into English], 2002-2006.
  3. ^ (in Polish) Mniejszo?ci narodowe i etniczne w Polsce on the pages of Polish Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration. Retrieved on 9 September 2007
  4. ^ Plater, Stanis?aw (1825). Jeografia wschodniéy czci Europy czyli Opis krajów przez wielorakie narody s?owia?skie zamieszkanych: obejmuj?cy Prussy, Xsi?ztwo Pozna?skie, Szl?sk Pruski, Gallicy?, Rzeczpospolit? Krakowsk?, Krolestwo Polskie i Litw? (in Polish). Wroc?aw: u Wilhelma Bogumi?a Korna. p. 17.
  5. ^ Andree, Karl (1831). Polen: in geographischer, geschichtlicher und culturhistorischer Hinsicht (in German). Verlag von Ludwig Schumann. p. 218.
  6. ^ Hassel, Georg (1823). Statistischer Umriß der sämmtlichen europäischen und der vornehmsten außereuropäischen Staaten, in Hinsicht ihrer Entwickelung, Größe, Volksmenge, Finanz- und Militärverfassung, tabellarisch dargestellt; Erster Heft: Welcher die beiden großen Mächte Österreich und Preußen und den Deutschen Staatenbund darstellt (in German). Verlag des Geographischen Instituts Weimar. p. 41.
  7. ^ a b Haxthausen, August (1839). Die Ländliche Verfassung in den Einzelnen Provinzen der Preussischen Monarchie (in German). pp. 75-91.
  8. ^ "Monastery of the Dormition of the Mother of God in Wojnowo (Eckersdorf)". wojnowo.net.
  9. ^ Tetzner, Franz (1902). Die Slawen in Deutschland: beiträge zur volkskunde der Preussen, Litauer und Letten, der Masuren und Philipponen, der Tschechen, Mährer und Sorben, Polaben und Slowinzen, Kaschuben und Polen. Braunschweig: Verlag von F. Vieweg. pp. 212-248.
  10. ^ "Old Believers in Poland - historical and cultural information". Poland's Linguistic Heritage.
  11. ^ Hoffmann, Johann Gottfried (1818). Übersicht der Bodenfläche und Bevölkerung des Preußischen Staates : aus den für das Jahr 1817 mtlich eingezogenen Nachrichten. Berlin: Decker. p. 51.
  12. ^ GUS. "Population. Size and structure and vital statistics in Poland by territorial division in 2019. As of 30th June". stat.gov.pl. Retrieved 2020.
  13. ^ Zwi?zek Województw Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej (Union of the Voivodeships of the Republic of Poland) (2010). Polska -- Rozwój Regionów.
  14. ^ "Podolsk sister cities". Retrieved 2010.

External links

Coordinates: 53°51?N 20°50?E / 53.850°N 20.833°E / 53.850; 20.833

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