Water of Crystallization
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Water of Crystallization

In chemistry, water(s) of crystallization or water(s) of hydration are water molecules that are present inside crystals. Water is often incorporated in the formation of crystals from aqueous solutions.[1] In some contexts, water of crystallization is the total mass of water in a substance at a given temperature and is mostly present in a definite (stoichiometric) ratio. Classically, "water of crystallization" refers to water that is found in the crystalline framework of a metal complex or a salt, which is not directly bonded to the metal cation.

Upon crystallization from water, or water-containing solvents, many compounds incorporate water molecules in their crystalline frameworks. Water of crystallization can generally be removed by heating a sample but the crystalline properties are often lost. For example, in the case of sodium chloride, the dihydrate is unstable at room temperature.[further explanation needed][]

Coordination sphere of Na+ in the metastable dihydrate of sodium chloride (red = oxygen, violet = Na+, green = Cl-, H atoms omitted).[2]

Compared to inorganic salts, proteins crystallize with large amounts of water in the crystal lattice. A water content of 50% is not uncommon for proteins.


In molecular formulas water of crystallization is indicated in various ways, but is often vague. The terms hydrated compound and hydrate are generally vaguely defined.

Position in the crystal structure

Some hydrogen-bonding contacts in FeSO4.7H2O. This metal aquo complex crystallizes with water of hydration, which interacts with the sulfate and with the [Fe(H2O)6]2+ centers.

A salt with associated water of crystallization is known as a hydrate. The structure of hydrates can be quite elaborate, because of the existence of hydrogen bonds that define polymeric structures.[3] [4] Historically, the structures of many hydrates were unknown, and the dot in the formula of a hydrate was employed to specify the composition without indicating how the water is bound. Examples:

  • CuSO4 o 5H2O - copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate
  • CoCl2 o 6H2O - cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate
  • SnCl2 o 2H2O - tin(II) (or stannous) chloride dihydrate

For many salts, the exact bonding of the water is unimportant because the water molecules are made labile upon dissolution. For example, an aqueous solution prepared from CuSO4 o 5H2O and anhydrous CuSO4 behave identically. Therefore, knowledge of the degree of hydration is important only for determining the equivalent weight: one mole of CuSO4 o 5H2O weighs more than one mole of CuSO4. In some cases, the degree of hydration can be critical to the resulting chemical properties. For example, anhydrous RhCl3 is not soluble in water and is relatively useless in organometallic chemistry whereas RhCl3 o 3H2O is versatile. Similarly, hydrated AlCl3 is a poor Lewis acid and thus inactive as a catalyst for Friedel-Crafts reactions. Samples of AlCl3 must therefore be protected from atmospheric moisture to preclude the formation of hydrates.

Structure of the polymeric [Ca(H2O)6]2+ center in crystalline calcium chloride hexahydrate. Three water ligands are terminal, three bridge. Two aspects of metal aquo complexes are illustrated: the high coordination number typical for Ca2+ and the role of water as a bridging ligand.

Crystals of hydrated copper(II) sulfate consist of [Cu(H2O)4]2+ centers linked to SO42- ions. Copper is surrounded by six oxygen atoms, provided by two different sulfate groups and four molecules of water. A fifth water resides elsewhere in the framework but does not bind directly to copper.[5] The cobalt chloride mentioned above occurs as [Co(H2O)6]2+ and Cl-. In tin chloride, each Sn(II) center is pyramidal (mean O/Cl-Sn-O/Cl angle is 83°) being bound to two chloride ions and one water. The second water in the formula unit is hydrogen-bonded to the chloride and to the coordinated water molecule. Water of crystallization is stabilized by electrostatic attractions, consequently hydrates are common for salts that contain +2 and +3 cations as well as -2 anions. In some cases, the majority of the weight of a compound arises from water. Glauber's salt, Na2SO4(H2O)10, is a white crystalline solid with greater than 50% water by weight.

Consider the case of nickel(II) chloride hexahydrate. This species has the formula NiCl2(H2O)6. Crystallographic analysis reveals that the solid consists of [trans-NiCl2(H2O)4] subunits that are hydrogen bonded to each other as well as two additional molecules of H2O. Thus 1/3 of the water molecules in the crystal are not directly bonded to Ni2+, and these might be termed "water of crystallization".


The water content of most compounds can be determined with a knowledge of its formula. An unknown sample can be determined through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) where the sample is heated strongly, and the accurate weight of a sample is plotted against the temperature. The amount of water driven off is then divided by the molar mass of water to obtain the number of molecules of water bound to the salt.

Other solvents of crystallization

Water is particularly common solvent to be found in crystals because it is small and polar. But all solvents can be found in some host crystals. Water is noteworthy because it is reactive, whereas other solvents such as benzene are considered to be chemically innocuous. Occasionally more than one solvent is found in a crystal, and often the stoichiometry is variable, reflected in the crystallographic concept of "partial occupancy." It is common and conventional for a chemist to "dry" a sample with a combination of vacuum and heat "to constant weight."

For other solvents of crystallization, analysis is conveniently accomplished by dissolving the sample in a deuterated solvent and analyzing the sample for solvent signals by NMR spectroscopy. Single crystal X-ray crystallography is often able to detect the presence of these solvents of crystallization as well. Other methods may be currently available.

Table of crystallization water in some inorganic halides

In the table below are indicated the number of molecules of water per metal in various salts.[6][7]

Formula of
hydrated metal halides
sphere of the metal
Equivalents of water of crystallization
that are not bound to M
CaCl2(H2O)6 [Ca(?-H2O)6(H2O)3]2+ none example of water as a bridging ligand[8]
TiCl3(H2O)6 trans-[TiCl2(H2O)4]+[9] two isomorphous with VCl3(H2O)6
VCl3(H2O)6 trans-[VCl2(H2O)4]+[9] two
VBr3(H2O)6 trans-[VBr2(H2O)4]+[9] two
VI3(H2O)6 [V(H2O)6]3+ none relative to Cl- and Br-,I- competes poorly
with water as a ligand for V(III)
Nb6Cl14(H2O)8 [Nb6Cl14(H2O)2] four
CrCl3(H2O)6 trans-[CrCl2(H2O)4]+ two dark green isomer, aka "Bjerrums's salt"
CrCl3(H2O)6 [CrCl(H2O)5]2+ one blue-green isomer
CrCl2(H2O)4 trans-[CrCl2(H2O)4] none square planar/tetragonal distortion
CrCl3(H2O)6 [Cr(H2O)6]3+ none violet isomer. isostructural with aluminium compound[10]
AlCl3(H2O)6 [Al(H2O)6]3+ none isostructural with the Cr(III) compound
MnCl2(H2O)6 trans-[MnCl2(H2O)4] two
MnCl2(H2O)4 cis-[MnCl2(H2O)4] none cis molecular, the unstable trans isomer has also been detected[11]
MnBr2(H2O)4 cis-[MnBr2(H2O)4] none cis, molecular
MnCl2(H2O)2 trans-[MnCl4(H2O)2] none polymeric with bridging chloride
MnBr2(H2O)2 trans-[MnBr4(H2O)2] none polymeric with bridging bromide
FeCl2(H2O)6 trans-[FeCl2(H2O)4] two
FeCl2(H2O)4 trans-[FeCl2(H2O)4] none molecular
FeBr2(H2O)4 trans-[FeBr2(H2O)4] none molecular
FeCl2(H2O)2 trans-[FeCl4(H2O)2] none polymeric with bridging chloride
FeCl3(H2O)6 trans-[FeCl2(H2O)4]+ two one of four hydrates of ferric chloride,[12] isostructural with Cr analogue
FeCl3(H2O)2.5 cis-[FeCl2(H2O)4]+ two the dihydrate has a similar structure, both contain FeCl4- anions.[12]
CoCl2(H2O)6 trans-[CoCl2(H2O)4] two
CoBr2(H2O)6 trans-[CoBr2(H2O)4] two
CoI2(H2O)6 [Co(H2O)6]2+ none[13] iodide competes poorly with water
CoBr2(H2O)4 trans-[CoBr2(H2O)4] none molecular
CoCl2(H2O)4 cis-[CoCl2(H2O)4] none note: cis molecular
CoCl2(H2O)2 trans-[CoCl4(H2O)2] none polymeric with bridging chloride
CoBr2(H2O)2 trans-[CoBr4(H2O)2] none polymeric with bridging bromide
NiCl2(H2O)6 trans-[NiCl2(H2O)4] two
NiCl2(H2O)4 cis-[NiCl2(H2O)4] none note: cis molecular
NiBr2(H2O)6 trans-[NiBr2(H2O)4] two
NiI2(H2O)6 [Ni(H2O)6]2+ none[13] iodide competes poorly with water
NiCl2(H2O)2 trans-[NiCl4(H2O)2] none polymeric with bridging chloride
CuCl2(H2O)2 [CuCl4(H2O)2]2 none tetragonally distorted
two long Cu-Cl distances
CuBr2(H2O)4 [CuBr4(H2O)2]n two tetragonally distorted
two long Cu-Br distances
ZnCl2(H2O)1.33[14] 2 ZnCl2 + ZnCl2(H2O)4 none coordination polymer with both tetrahedral and octahedral Zn centers
ZnCl2(H2O)2.5[15] Cl3Zn(?-Cl)Zn(H2O)5 none tetrahedral and octahedral Zn centers
ZnCl2(H2O)3[14] [ZnCl4]2- + Zn(H2O)6]2+ none tetrahedral and octahedral Zn centers
ZnCl2(H2O)4.5[14] [ZnCl4]2- + [Zn(H2O)6]2+ three tetrahedral and octahedral Zn centers

Hydrates of metal sulfates

Transition metal sulfates form a variety of hydrates, each of which crystallizes in only one form. The sulfate group often binds to the metal, especially for those salts with fewer than six aquo ligands. The heptahydrates, which are often the most common salts, crystallize as monoclinic and the less common orthorhombic forms. In the heptahydrates, one water is in the lattice and the other six are coordinated to the ferrous center.[16] Many of the metal sulfates occur in nature, being the result of weathering of mineral sulfides.[17][18] Many monohydraes are known.[19]

Formula of
hydrated metal ion sulfate
sphere of the metal ion
Equivalents of water of crystallization
that are not bound to M
mineral name Remarks
MgSO4(H2O)4 [Mg(H2O)4(?',?1-SO4)]2 none sulfate is bridging ligand, 8-membered Mg2O4S2 rings[20]
MgSO4(H2O)6 [Mg(H2O)6] none hexahydrite common motif[17]
MgSO4(H2O)7 [Mg(H2O)6] one epsomite common motif[17]
TiOSO4(H2O) [Ti(?-O)2(H2O)(?1-SO4)3] none further hydration gives gels
VSO4(H2O)6 [V(H2O)6] none Adopts the hexahydrite motif[21]
VOSO4(H2O)5 [VO(H2O)4(?1-SO4)4] one
Cr2(SO4)3(H2O)18 [Cr(H2O)6] six One of several chromium(III) sulfates
MnSO4(H2O) [Mn(?-H2O)2(?1-SO4)4][19]   none   The most common of several hydrated manganese(II) sulfates
MnSO4(H2O)7 [Mn(H2O)6] one mallardite[18] see Mg analogue
FeSO4(H2O)7 [Fe(H2O)6] one melanterite[18] see Mg analogue
FeSO4(H2O)4 [Fe(H2O)4(?',?1-SO4)]2 none sulfate is bridging ligand, 8-membered Fe2O4S2 rings[20]
FeII(FeIII)2(SO4)4(H2O)14]] [FeII(H2O)6]2+[FeIII(H2O)4(?1-SO4)2]-2 none sulfates are terminal ligands on Fe(III)[22]
CoSO4(H2O)7 [Co(H2O)6] one see Mg analogue
CoSO4(H2O)6 [Co(H2O)6] none morehouseite see Mg analogue
CoSO4(H2O)7 [Co(H2O)6] one bieberite[18] see Fe analogue
NiSO4(H2O)6 [Ni(H2O)6] none retgersite   One of several nickel sulfate hydrates[23]
NiSO4(H2O)7 [Ni(H2O)6] morenosite[18] 
CuSO4(H2O)5 [Cu(H2O)4(?1-SO4)2] one chalcantite sulfate is bridging ligand[24]
CuSO4(H2O)7 [Cu(H2O)6] one boothite[18]
ZnSO4(H2O)4 [Zn(H2O)4(?',?1-SO4)]2 none sulfate is bridging ligand, 8-membered Zn2O4S2 ringss[20][25]
ZnSO4(H2O)6 [Zn(H2O)6] none see Mg analogue[26]
ZnSO4(H2O)7 [Zn(H2O)6] one| goslarite[18] see Mg analogue
CdSO4(H2O) [Cd(?-H2O)2(?1-SO4)4] none   bridging water ligand[27]

Hydrates of metal nitrates

Transition metal nitrates form a variety of hydrates. The nitrate anion often binds to the metal, especially for those salts with fewer than six aquo ligands.

Formula of
hydrated metal ion nitrate
sphere of the metal ion
Equivalents of water of crystallization
that are not bound to M
Cr(NO3)3(H2O)6 [Cr(H2O)6](3+ three octahedral configuration[28] isostructural with Fe(NO3)3(H2O)9
Mn(NO3)2(H2O)4 cis-[Mn(H2O)4(?1-ONO2)2] none octahedral configuration
Mn(NO3)2(H2O) [Mn(H2O)(?-ONO2)5] none octahedral configuration
Fe(NO3)3(H2O)9 [Fe(H2O)6]3+ three octahedral configuration[29] isostructural with Cr(NO3)3(H2O)9
Fe(NO3)3)(H2O)4 [Fe(H2O)3(?2-O2NO)2]+ one pentagonal bipyramid[30]
Fe(NO3)3(H2O)5 [Fe(H2O)5(?1-ONO2)]2+ none octahedral configuration[30]
Fe(NO3)3(H2O)6 [Fe(H2O)6]3+ none octahedral configuration[30]
Co(NO3)2(H2O)2 [Co(H2O)2(?1-ONO2)2] none octahedral configuration
Co(NO3)2(H2O)4 [Co(H2O)4(?1-ONO2)2 none octahedral configuration
Co(NO3)2(H2O)6 [Co(H2O)6]2+ none octahedral configuration.[31]
?-Ni(NO3)2(H2O)4 cis-[Ni(H2O)4(?1-ONO2)2] none octahedral configuration.[32]
?-Ni(NO3)2(H2O)4 trans-[Ni(H2O)4(?1-ONO2)2] none octahedral configuration.[33]
Cu(NO3)2(H2O) [Cu(H2O)(?2-ONO2)2] none octahedral configuration.
Cu(NO3)2(H2O)1.5 uncertain uncertain uncertain[34]
Cu(NO3)2(H2O)2.5 [Cu(H2O)2(?1-ONO2)2] one square planar[35]
Cu(NO3)2(H2O)3 uncertain uncertain uncertain [36]
Cu(NO3)2(H2O)6 [Cu(H2O)6]2+ none octahedral configuration[37]
Zn(NO3)2(H2O)4 cis-[Zn(H2O)4(?1-ONO2)2] none octahedral configuration.


See also


  1. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
  2. ^ Klewe, B.; Pedersen, B. (1974). "The crystal structure of sodium chloride dihydrate". Acta Crystallographica B. 30 (10): 2363-2371. doi:10.1107/S0567740874007138.
  3. ^ Yonghui Wang et al. "Novel Hydrogen-Bonded Three-Dimensional Networks Encapsulating One-Dimensional Covalent Chains: ..." Inorg. Chem., 2002, 41 (24), pp. 6351-6357. doi:10.1021/ic025915o
  4. ^ Carmen R. Maldonadoa, Miguel Quirós and J.M. Salas: "Formation of 2D water morphologies in the lattice of the salt..." Inorganic Chemistry Communications Volume 13, Issue 3, March 2010, p. 399-403; doi:10.1016/j.inoche.2009.12.033
  5. ^ Moeller, Therald (Jan 1, 1980). Chemistry: With Inorganic qualitative Analysis. Academic Press Inc (London) Ltd. p. 909. ISBN 978-0-12-503350-3. Retrieved 2014.
  6. ^ K. Waizumi, H. Masuda, H. Ohtaki, "X-ray structural studies of FeBr2 o 4H2O, CoBr2 o 4H2O, NiCl2 o 4H2O, and CuBr2 o 4H2O. cis/trans Selectivity in transition metal(I1) dihalide Tetrahydrate" Inorganica Chimica Acta, 1992 volume 192, pages 173-181.
  7. ^ B. Morosin "An X-ray diffraction study on nickel(II) chloride dihydrate" Acta Crystallogr. 1967. volume 23, pp. 630-634. doi:10.1107/S0365110X67003305
  8. ^ Agron, P. A.; Busing, W. R. (1986). "Calcium and Strontium Dichloride Hexahydrates by Neutron Diffraction". Acta Crystallographica Section C. 42 (2): 14. doi:10.1107/S0108270186097007.
  9. ^ a b c Donovan, William F.; Smith, Peter W. (1975). "Crystal and Molecular Structures of Aquahalogenovanadium(III) Complexes. Part I. X-Ray Crystal Structure of trans-Tetrakisaquadibromo-Vanadium(III) Bromide Dihydrate and the Isomorphous Chloro- Compound". Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions (10): 894. doi:10.1039/DT9750000894.
  10. ^ Andress, K. R.; Carpenter, C. (1934). "Die Struktur von Chromchlorid- und Aluminiumchloridhexahydrat". Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Kristallgeometrie, Kristallphysik, Kristallchemie. 87: 446-p463.
  11. ^ Zalkin, Allan; Forrester, J. D.; Templeton, David H. (1964). "Crystal Structure of Manganese Dichloride Tetrahydrate". Inorganic Chemistry. 3 (4): 529-33. doi:10.1021/ic50014a017.
  12. ^ a b Simon A. Cotton (2018). "Iron(III) Chloride and Its Coordination Chemistry". Journal of Coordination Chemistry. 71 (21): 3415-3443. doi:10.1080/00958972.2018.1519188. S2CID 105925459.
  13. ^ a b Louër, Michele; Grandjean, Daniel; Weigel, Dominique (1973). "Structure Cristalline et Expansion Thermique de l'Iodure de Nickel Hexahydrate" (Crystal structure and thermal expansion of nickel(II) iodide hexahydrate)". Journal of Solid State Chemistry. 7: 222-8. doi:10.1016/0022-4596(73)90157-6.
  14. ^ a b c Follner, H.; Brehler, B. (1970). "Die Kristallstruktur des ZnCl2.4/3H2O". Acta Crystallographica Section B. 26 (11): 1679-1682. doi:10.1107/S0567740870004715.
  15. ^ Hennings, Erik; Schmidt, Horst; Voigt, Wolfgang (2014). "Crystal Sructures of ZnCl2·2.5H2O, ZnCl2·3H2O and ZnCl2·4.5H2O". Acta Crystallographica Section E. 70 (12): 515-518. doi:10.1107/S1600536814024738. PMC 4257420. PMID 25552980.
  16. ^ Baur, W.H. "On the crystal chemistry of salt hydrates. III. The determination of the crystal structure of FeSO4(H2O)7 (melanterite)" Acta Crystallographica 1964, volume 17, p1167-p1174. doi:10.1107/S0365110X64003000
  17. ^ a b c Chou, I-Ming; Seal, Robert R.; Wang, Alian (2013). "The stability of sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals near ambient conditions and their significance in environmental and planetary sciences". Journal of Asian Earth Sciences. 62: 734-758. Bibcode:2013JAESc..62..734C. doi:10.1016/j.jseaes.2012.11.027.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Redhammer, G. J.; Koll, L.; Bernroider, M.; Tippelt, G.; Amthauer, G.; Roth, G. (2007). "Co2+-Cu2+ Substitution in Bieberite Solid-Solution Series, (Co1-xCux)SO4{middle dot}7H2O, 0.00 American Mineralogist. 92 (4): 532-545. Bibcode:2007AmMin..92..532R. doi:10.2138/am.2007.2229. S2CID 95885758.
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  21. ^ Cotton, F. Albert; Falvello, Larry R.; Llusar, Rosa; Libby, Eduardo; Murillo, Carlos A.; Schwotzer, Willi (1986). "Synthesis and Characterization of Four Vanadium(II) Compounds, Including Vanadium(II) Sulfate Hexahydrate and Vanadium(II) Saccharinates". Inorganic Chemistry. 25 (19): 3423-3428. doi:10.1021/ic00239a021.
  22. ^ L. Fanfani, A. Nunzi, P. F. Zanazzi (1970). "The Crystal Structure of Roemerite". American Mineralogist. 55: 78-89.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  23. ^ Stadnicka, K.; Glazer, A.M.; Koralewski, M. "Structure, Absolute Configuration and Optical Activity of alpha-Nickel Sulfate Hexahydrate" Acta Crystallographica, Section B: Structural Science (1987) 43, p319-p325.
  24. ^ V. P. Ting, P. F. Henry, M. Schmidtmann, C. C. Wilson, M. T. Weller "In situ Neutron Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination in Controlled Humidities" Chem. Commun., 2009, 7527-7529. doi:10.1039/B918702B
  25. ^ Blake, Alexander J.; Cooke, Paul A.; Hubberstey, Peter; Sampson, Claire L. (2001). "Zinc(II) sulfate tetrahydrate". Acta Crystallographica Section E. 57 (12): i109-i111. doi:10.1107/S1600536801017998.
  26. ^ Spiess, M.; Gruehn, R. (1979). "Beiträge zum thermischen Verhalten von Sulfaten. II. Zur thermischen Dehydratisierung des ZnSO4.7 H2O und zum Hochtemperaturverhalten von wasserfreiem ZnSO4". Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie. 456: 222-240. doi:10.1002/zaac.19794560124.
  27. ^ Theppitak, Chatphorn; Chainok, Kittipong (2015). "Crystal Structure of CdSO4(H2O): A Redetermination". Acta Crystallographica E. 71 (10): i8-i9. doi:10.1107/S2056989015016904. PMC 4647421. PMID 26594423.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  28. ^ . doi:10.1107/S0108270190012628. Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  29. ^ Hair, Neil J.; Beattie, James K. (1977). "Structure of Hexaaquairon(III) Nitrate Trihydrate. Comparison of Iron(II) and Iron(III) Bond Lengths in High-Spin Octahedral Environments". Inorganic Chemistry. 16 (2): 245-250. doi:10.1021/ic50168a006.
  30. ^ a b c H. Schmidt, A. Asztalos, F. Bok and W. Voigt (2012): "New iron(III) nitrate hydrates: ·x with x = 4, 5 and 6". Acta Crystallographica Section C - Inorganic Compounds, volume C68, pages i29-i33. doi:10.1107/S0108270112015855
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  34. ^ Dornberger-Schiff, K.; Leciejewicz, J. (1958). "Zur Struktur des Kupfernitrates Cu(NO3)2.1.5H2O". Acta Crystallogr. 11: 825-826. doi:10.1107/S0365110X58002322.
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