William Lane Craig
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William Lane Craig

William Lane Craig
William Lane Craig.jpg
Born (1949-08-23) August 23, 1949 (age 71)
Notable work
Reasonable Faith (1994)
Jan Craig
(m. 1972)
EraContemporary philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolAnalytic philosophy
Doctoral advisor
Other academic advisorsNorman Geisler
Main interests
Notable ideas
Kalam cosmological argument

William Lane Craig (born August 23, 1949) is an American analytic philosopher[5] and Christian theologian, Christian apologist, and author.[6] He is Professor of Philosophy at Houston Baptist University and Research Professor of Philosophy at Talbot School of Theology (Biola University).[7] Craig has updated and defended the Kalam cosmological argument for the existence of God.[8][9][10][11][12] He has also published work where he argues in favor of the historical plausibility of the resurrection of Jesus.[13] His study of divine aseity and Platonism culminated with his book God Over All.[14][15] He is a Wesleyan theologian who upholds the view of Molinism and neo-Apollinarianism.[16][17]

Early life and education

Craig was born August 23, 1949, in Peoria, Illinois, to Mallory and Doris Craig.[18][19] While a student at East Peoria Community High School (1963-1967),[20] Craig competed in debate and won the state championship in oratory.[21][8] In September 1965, his junior year, he became a Christian,[22][23][24] and after graduating from high school, attended Wheaton College, majoring in communications.[25][8] Craig graduated in 1971 and the following year married his wife Jan, whom he met on the staff of Campus Crusade for Christ.[25][26] They have two grown children and reside in suburban Atlanta, Georgia.[26] In 2014, he was named alumnus of the year by Wheaton.[25]

In 1973 Craig entered the program in philosophy of religion at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School north of Chicago, where he studied under Norman Geisler.[27][28][8] In 1975 Craig commenced doctoral studies in philosophy at the University of Birmingham, England,[29] writing on the cosmological argument under the direction of John Hick.[30][8] He was awarded a doctorate in 1977.[31] Out of this study came his first book, The Kalam Cosmological Argument (1979), a defense of the argument he first encountered in Hackett's work.[8] Craig was awarded a postdoctoral fellowship in 1978 from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation[32] to pursue research on the historicity of the resurrection of Jesus under the direction of Wolfhart Pannenberg at the Ludwig-Maximillians-Universität München in Germany.[29][33][32][8][27] His studies in Munich under Pannenberg's supervision led to a second doctorate, this one in theology,[25][8] awarded in 1984 with the publication of his doctoral thesis, The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus During the Deist Controversy (1985).[34][35]


Craig joined the faculty of Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in 1980, where he taught philosophy of religion until 1986.[36] In 1982 he received an invitation to debate with Kai Nielsen at the University of Calgary, Canada, on the question of God's existence.[37] Encouraged by the reception,[37] Craig has formally debated the existence of God (and related topics such as the historicity of the resurrection of Jesus) with many prominent figures, including: Sam Harris, Christopher Hitchens, Lawrence M. Krauss,[8] Lewis Wolpert, Antony Flew, Sean Carroll, Sir Roger Penrose, Peter Atkins, Bart Ehrman, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Paul Draper, Gerd Lüdemann and A. C. Grayling.[38][39][8]

After a one-year stint at Westmont College on the outskirts of Santa Barbara, Craig moved in 1987 with his wife and two young children back to Europe,[40] where he was a visiting scholar at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Louvain) in Belgium until 1994.[40][41] At that time, Craig joined the Department of Philosophy and Ethics at Talbot School of Theology in suburban Los Angeles as a research professor of philosophy, a position he currently holds,[22][7][42] and he went on to become a professor of philosophy at Houston Baptist University in 2014.[7][42] In 2016, Craig was named Alumnus of the Year by Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.[43] In 2017, Biola created a permanent faculty position and endowed chair, the William Lane Craig Endowed Chair in Philosophy, in honor of Craig's academic contributions.[44]

Craig served as president of the Philosophy of Time Society from 1999 to 2006.[45][46] He helped revitalize the Evangelical Philosophical Society and served as its president from 1996 to 2005.[8]

In the mid-2000s,[47][48] Craig established the online Christian apologetics ministry ReasonableFaith.org.[7]

Regarding his written work, Craig has authored or edited over thirty books and almost two hundred articles published in professional philosophy and theology journals,[49][50] including the following, highly ranked,[51] journals: British Journal for the Philosophy of Science,[52] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research,[53][54] Philosophical Studies,[55] Australasian Journal of Philosophy,[56][57][58][59] Faith and Philosophy,[60] Erkenntnis[61][62] and American Philosophical Quarterly.[63] He also debated with Canadian Islamic Scholar Dr. Shabir Ally.[64]

Philosophical and theological views

Kalam cosmological argument

Craig has written and spoken in defense of a version of the cosmological argument called the Kalam cosmological argument.[a][66][67] While the Kalam originated in medieval Islamic philosophy, Craig added appeals to scientific and philosophical ideas in the argument's defense.[8] Craig's work has resulted in contemporary interest in the argument, and in cosmological arguments in general.[68][69][70]

Craig formulates his version of the argument as follows:

  1. Everything that begins to exist has a cause of its existence.
  2. The universe began to exist.
  3. Therefore, the universe has a cause of its existence."[65][68]

Craig's defense of the argument mainly focuses on the second premise,[71][72] and he offers several arguments to support it. For example, Craig appeals to Hilbert's example of an infinite hotel to argue that actually infinite collections are impossible, and thus the past is finite and has a beginning.[73][74][75] And, in another argument, Craig says that the series of events in time is formed by a process in which each moment is added to history in succession. According to Craig, this process can never produce an actually infinite collection of events, but instead produces only a potentially infinite one. On this basis, he argues that the past is finite and has a beginning.[76][77][68]

Craig also appeals to various physical theories to support the argument's second premise, such as the standard Big Bang model of cosmic origins and certain implications of the second law of thermodynamics.[68][8][73]

The Kalam argument concludes that the universe had a cause, but Craig further argues that the cause must be a person.[65] First, he says that the cause of the universe is outside of time, as it causes the beginning of time itself. He then says that causes that are outside of time only have eternal effects if they are non-personal. Given his acceptance of the Kalam argument for a non-eternal universe, he concludes that the cause of the universe must be personal.[78]

Craig's arguments to support the Kalam argument have been discussed and debated by a variety of commentators[79][80] including philosophers Adolf Grünbaum,[81] Quentin Smith,[82] Wes Morriston,[83][84] and Graham Oppy.[85]


Craig is a proponent of Molinism, an idea first formulated by the Jesuit theologian Luis de Molina according to which God possesses foreknowledge of which free actions each person would perform under every possible circumstance, a kind of knowledge that is sometimes termed "middle knowledge."[86] Protestant-Molinism, such as Craig's, first entered Protestant theology through two anti-Calvinist thinkers: Jacobus Arminius and Conrad Vorstius.[87][88] Molinists such as Craig appeal to this idea to reconcile the perceived conflict between God's providence and foreknowledge with human free will. The idea is that, by relying on middle knowledge, God does not interfere with anyone's free will, instead choosing which circumstances to actualize given a complete understanding of how people will freely choose to act in response.[89] Craig also appeals to Molinism in his discussions of the inspiration of scripture, Christian exclusivism, the perseverance of the Saints, and missionary evangelism.[90]

Resurrection of Jesus

Craig has written two volumes arguing for the historicity of the resurrection of Jesus, The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus (1985)[13][91] and Assessing the New Testament Evidence for the Historicity of the Resurrection of Jesus (3rd ed., 2002).[92][93] In the former volume, Craig describes the history of the discussion, including David Hume's arguments against the identification of miracles. The latter volume is an exegetical study of the New Testament material pertinent to the resurrection.

Craig structures his arguments for the historicity of the resurrection under 3 headings:[94]

  1. The tomb of Jesus was found empty by a group of his female followers on the Sunday after his crucifixion.[95]
  2. Various individuals and groups experienced appearances of Jesus alive after his death.
  3. The earliest disciples came to believe that God had raised Jesus from the dead despite strong predispositions to the contrary.

Craig argues that the best explanation of these three events is a literal resurrection.[96] He applies an evaluative framework developed by philosopher of history C. Behan McCullagh[97] to examine various theoretical explanations proposed for these events. From that frame work, he rejects alternative theories such as Gerd Lüdemann's hallucination hypothesis, the conspiracy hypothesis, and Heinrich Paulus or Friedrich Schleiermacher's apparent death hypothesis as lacking explanatory scope, explanatory power, and sufficient historical knowledge.[98][99]

Philosophy of time

Craig defends a presentist version of the A-theory of time. According to this theory, the present exists, but the past and future do not. Additionally, he holds that there are tensed facts, such as it is now lunchtime, which cannot be reduced to or identified with tenseless facts of the form it is lunchtime at noon on February 10, 2020. According to this theory, presentness is a real aspect of time, and not merely a projection of our thought and talk about time. He raises several defenses of this theory, two of which are especially notable. First, he criticizes J. M. E. McTaggart's argument that the A-theory is incoherent, suggesting that McTaggart's argument begs the question by covertly presupposing the B-theory. Second, he defends the A-theory from empirical challenges arising from the standard interpretation of Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity (SR). He responds to this challenge by advocating a neo-Lorentzian interpretation of SR which is empirically equivalent to the standard interpretation, and which is consistent with the A-theory and with absolute simultaneity. Craig criticizes the standard physical-world interpretation of SR on the grounds that it is based on a discredited positivist epistemology. Moreover, he claims that positivism is inconsistent with the appeal to SR made by these opponents of the A-theory.[100][101][102]

Divine eternity

Craig argues that God existed in a timeless state causally prior to creation,[102] but has existed in a temporal state beginning with creation, by virtue of his relationship with tensed facts and his interactions with events.[103] He gives two arguments in support of that view. First, he says that, given his tensed view of time, God cannot be timeless once he has created a temporal universe, since, after that point, he is related to time through his interactions and through causing events in time.[103] Second, Craig says that as a feature of his omniscience, God must know the truth related to tensed facts about the world, such as whether the statement "Today is January 15th" is true or not or what is happening right now.[101][104][105][106][b]

Divine aseity

Craig has published on the challenge posed by platonism to divine aseity or self-existence.[107] Craig rejects both the view that God creates abstract objects and that they exist independently of God.[108] Rather, he defends a nominalistic perspective that abstract objects are concepts rather than ontologically real objects.[109] Stating that the Quine-Putnam indispensability thesis is the chief support of platonism,[110] Craig criticizes Willard Van Orman Quine's naturalized epistemology and confirmational holism, rejecting the idea that using a concept like the number "1" commits you to believing that a thing called "1" actually exists independent of the objects you are referencing.[111][112]

Craig favors a more neutral interpretation of the use of concepts like formal quantifiers of first-order logic where a statement can be true, even if there isn't an object it is referencing. Craig gives the example of the statement "the price of the ticket is ten dollars" which he argues can still be a true statement even if there isn't an actual object called a "price."[113] He defines these references as a speech act rather than a word-world relation, so that singular terms may be used in true sentences without commitment to corresponding objects in the world.[114] Craig has additionally argued that even if one were to grant that these references were being used as in a word-world relation, that fictionalism is a more coherent explanation of their use; in particular pretense theory, according to which statements about abstract objects are expressions of make-believe, imagined to be true, though literally false.[115]

Other views

Craig is a critic of metaphysical naturalism,[116] New Atheism,[117] and prosperity theology,[118] as well as a defender of Reformed epistemology.[119] He also states that a confessing Christian should not engage in homosexual acts.[120][121][122][123] Craig maintains that the theory of evolution is compatible with Christianity.[124][125] Craig is not convinced that the "current evolutionary paradigm is entirely adequate" to explain the emergence of biological complexity, and he is inclined to think that God had to periodically intervene to produce this effect.[126][127] He is a fellow of the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture[128] and was a fellow of the International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design.[129] In his debate with Paul Helm, Craig explains that he would call himself an "Arminian" "in the proper sense."[88] Furthermore, he has explained himself as a Wesleyan or Wesleyan-Arminian.[130]

As a non-voluntaristic divine command theorist, Craig believes God had the moral right to command the killing of the Canaanites if they refused to leave their land, as depicted in the Book of Deuteronomy.[131][132] This has led to some controversy, as seen in a critique by Wes Morriston.[133][134] Craig has also proposed a neo-Apollinarian Christology in which the divine logos stands in for the human soul of Christ and completes his human nature.[135]

The prominent atheist thinker Richard Dawkins has repeatedly refused to debate Craig, and he has given what he calls Craig's defense of genocide as one of his reasons for doing so.[136][137] Meanwhile, atheist philosopher Daniel Came accused Dawkins of his cowardice for refusing to debate existence of God without appropriate reason.[138]


According to Nathan Schneider, "[many] professional philosophers know about him only vaguely, but in the field of philosophy of religion, [Craig's] books and articles are among the most cited".[8] Fellow philosopher Quentin Smith writes that "William Lane Craig is one [of] the leading philosophers of religion and one of the leading philosophers of time."[139] In 2016, The Best Schools named William Lane Craig among the 50 most influential living philosophers.[140]

With respect to his debating skills, Sam Harris once described Craig as "the one Christian Apologist who seems to have put the fear of God into many of my fellow atheists".[8]

Selected publications

See also


  1. ^ Craig's own version of the Kal?m argument is succinct: 1. 'Everything that begins to exist has a cause of its existence.' 2. 'The universe began to exist,' i.e., the temporal regress of events is finite. 3. 'Therefore the universe has a cause of its existence' Following Ghazali, Craig argues that this cause must be a personal will. Nothing but the arbitrary choice of a free agent could account for the fact that the world was created at one time rather than another, or (if time comes into being with the first event) for the fact that the first event did not have a predecessor.[65]
  2. ^ When Craig says that God is timeless "prior to" the creation of time, the relevant notion of priority is not supposed to be temporal, as there is no time temporally prior to the first moment of time. Rather, Craig means to suggest that God is prior to time in some non-temporal sense that is difficult to specify, and which involves the idea that God was the cause of the universe. Several philosophers have argued that Craig's notion of non-temporal priority is not clear.[104][105][106]


  1. ^ Craig & Carroll 2016, p. 102.
  2. ^ a b c Craig, William Lane (August 23, 2011). "Dr. Craig's Favorite Philosopher, Debate, and Books". Reasonable Faith (podcast). Interviewed by Harris, Kevin. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Alvarez 2013, p. 238.
  4. ^ Roach, David (September 8, 2014). "Theologian Wolfhart Pannenberg Dies". Baptist Press. Southern Baptist Convention. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Schneider, Nathan (July 1, 2013). "The New Theist". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved . The result is a person [Craig] ... who cannot only hold his own against fellow analytic philosophers...
  6. ^ Creel 2014, p. 205.
  7. ^ a b c d Murashko, Alex (February 5, 2014). "Leading Apologist William Lane Craig to Join Houston Baptist U's School of Christian Thought Faculty". The Christian Post. Retrieved .
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Schneider, Nathan (July 1, 2013). "The New Theist: How William Lane Craig Became Christian Philosophy's Boldest Apostle". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Washington. Retrieved .
  9. ^ Reichenbach, Bruce. "Cosmological Argument". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University. Retrieved . In his widely discussed writings William Lane Craig marshals multidisciplinary evidence for the truth of the premises found in the kal?m argument.... [much more discussion follows]
  10. ^ Sun, Eryn (September 30, 2011). "Dawkins defends decision not to debate apologist William Lane Craig". Christianity Today. Retrieved . ...[Craig is] the leading Christian apologist, famous for his revival of the Kalam cosmological argument which asserts that God caused the universe to first exist.
  11. ^ Horn, Trent (July 17, 2013). "New Support for the Cosmological Argument". catholic.com. Retrieved . Although the argument fell into relatively obscurity after it was promoted in the Middle Ages, it received new life through William Lane Craig's 1979 book The Kalam Cosmological Argument. Craig has become the argument's leading proponent, and thanks to his famous debates with atheists that end up on YouTube, the kalam argument has become well-known and is vigorously dissected by critics.
  12. ^ Robinson & Baggett 2016, p. 212.
  13. ^ a b Habermas 1988.
  14. ^ Craig 2016.
  15. ^ McNabb, Tyler Dalton. "Review of God Over All: Divine Aseity and the Challenge of Platonism by William Lane Craig". Journal of Biblical and Theological Studies. ISSN 2572-2832.
  16. ^ https://www.reformation21.org/blogs/the-mechanics-of-neoapollinari.php
  17. ^ https://www.biola.edu/blogs/good-book-blog/2019/neo-apollinarianism-and-mind-body-dualism
  18. ^ Craig, William Lane. "Does the Problem of Material Constitution Illuminate the Doctrine of the Trinity?". Retrieved . I am the second child of Mallory and Doris Craig...
  19. ^ Craig, William Lane (February 5, 2018). "Questions on Certainty and Debate". Retrieved . But that doesn't undermine my knowledge that I was born in Peoria, Illinois and raised in Keokuk, Iowa.
  20. ^ Craig, William Lane. "Debating". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on 2014-05-12. Retrieved .
  21. ^ "Records and History - Original Oratory". Illinois High School Association. Retrieved .
  22. ^ a b "William Lane Craig". La Mirada, California: Biola University. Archived from the original on 2014-08-14. Retrieved .
  23. ^ "William Lane Craig and Sean McDowell". Fervr. Retrieved .
  24. ^ Craig, William Lane (November 5, 2007). "Faith and Doubt". Retrieved . To speak personally, I myself was not raised in an evangelical home, but I became a Christian my third year of high school.
  25. ^ a b c d "Dr. William Lane Craig Named Alumnus of the Year". Wheaton, Illinois: Wheaton College. May 7, 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-05-12. Retrieved .
  26. ^ a b Schneider, Nathan (July 12, 2013). "7 Habits of a Highly Effective Philosopher". Killing the Buddha. Retrieved .
  27. ^ a b Craig, William Lane. "Double Doctorates". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on 2014-05-12. Retrieved .
  28. ^ "William Lane Craig Named TEDS Alumnus of the Year". Trinity International University. Retrieved .
  29. ^ a b "William Lane Craig". calvin.edu. Calvin College. Retrieved .
  30. ^ Cramer, David C. "John Hick (1922--2012)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ISSN 2161-0002. Retrieved . Many of [Hick's] former students are now established Christian philosophers in their own right, including ... William Lane Craig...
  31. ^ "The Cadbury Lectures 2015: God Over All Back to 'The Cadbury lectures' 16 March - 20 March 2015". University of Birmingham. Retrieved . Hosted by the John Hick Centre for Philosophy of Religion. Our theme for 2015 is 'God Over All' , and will consist of a series of lectures given by Professor William Lane Craig (Talbot School of Theology and Houston Baptist University; PhD University of Birmingham 1977).
  32. ^ a b "Humboldt Network: Prof. Dr. William L. Craig". Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung/Foundation. Retrieved . Host(s) and host institute(s) during Humboldt sponsorship: Prof. Dr. Wolfhart Pannenberg, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München; Start of first sponsorship: 01.01.1978
  33. ^ Sanders, Fred (September 18, 2014). "The Strange Legacy of Theologian Wolfhart Pannenberg". Christianity Today. Archived from the original on 2014-09-21. Retrieved . Accordingly, Pannenberg marshaled the available evidence and argued that the most rational interpretation of it is that Christ actually rose from the dead. That a high-level German theologian would defend Christ's resurrection as a knowable fact was headline news in the religious press of the 1970s. It's no surprise, then, that Pannenberg's emphasis on the historical reliability of the Resurrection attracted students like apologist William Lane Craig.
  34. ^ "The historical argument for the Resurrection of Jesus during the Deist controversy". Online Computer Library Center. OCLC 925034139. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  35. ^ Pearson, Samuel C. (October 1988). "Book Review: The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus during the Deist Controversy. William L. Craig". The Journal of Religion. The University of Chicago Press. 68 (4): 595. doi:10.1086/487941. In this large study, which apparently grew out of a dissertation prepared under the supervision of Wolfhart Pannenberg...
  36. ^ "William Lane Craig Named TEDS Alumnus of the Year". Trinity International University. Retrieved . Craig earned master's degrees from TEDS in philosophy of religion, as well as in church history and the history of Christian thought. He taught philosophy of religion at TEDS from 1980-1986.
  37. ^ a b Craig, William Lane (April 5, 2010). "#155 Debating". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved . But in 1982, with my doctoral studies behind me, I received an invitation from a Canadian Christian group to debate the atheist philosopher Kai Nielsen at the University of Calgary.
  38. ^ Premier. "Unbelievable? 5 Jul 2011 - William Lane Craig vs AC Grayling debate on God & Evil: Tuesday 05 July 2011 2:30:00 am". Premier Christian Radio.
  39. ^ Stafforini, Pablo (August 18, 2016). "William Lane Craig: A Complete List of Debates". Pablo's Miscellany. Pablo Stafforini. Archived from the original on 2017-06-11. Retrieved .
  40. ^ a b Craig, William Lane (2000). "Author Bio". The Only Wise God: The Compatibility of Divine Foreknowledge & Human Freedom (Reprint edition (January 2000) ed.). Wipf and Stock. ISBN 978-1579103163. From 1980 to 1986 he taught philosophy of religion at Trinity, during which time he and Jan started their family. In 1987 they moved to Brussels, Belgium, where Dr. Craig pursued research at the University of Louvain until 1994.
  41. ^ "Contributors". International Philosophical Quarterly. Fordham University Press. 33: 142. 1993. William Lane Craig is a visiting scholar at the Inst. Supérieur de Philosophie at the Catholic Univ. of Louvain (B-3000 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium), PhD from Univ. of Birmingham (Eng.) and DTh from the Univ. of Munich, he taught at Westmont College and is a Fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt Siftung. Interested in Philosophy of Religion and of Space and Time, he includes in his publications the books The Kalam Cosmological Argument and Divine Foreknowledge and Human Freedom.
  42. ^ a b Kristof, Nicholas (December 21, 2018). "Professor, Was Jesus Really Born to a Virgin?". The New York Times. p. SR23. Retrieved . Here's my interview of William Lane Craig, professor of philosophy at Talbot School of Theology and Houston Baptist University.
  43. ^ Trinity International University (July 22, 2016). "William Lane Craig Named TEDS Alumnus of the Year". Buffalo Grove Countryside. Archived from the original on 2016-07-26. Retrieved .
  44. ^ Wu, Joanna (Spring 2017). "William Lane Craig Named in Biola's First Endowed Chair". Biola Magazine. La Mirada, California: Biola University. p. 15. Retrieved .
  45. ^ Robinson & Baggett 2016, p. 213.
  46. ^ Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 74:2. November 2000. p. 162.
  47. ^ "Reasonable Faith Inc". Nonprofit Explorer. ProPublica. Retrieved .
  48. ^ Craig, William Lane; Harris, Kevin (March 3, 2019). "Dr Craig's Interview in the New York Times". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved . That's one of the reasons we founded Reasonable Faith over ten years ago
  49. ^ "Dr. William Lane Craig Curriculum Vitae" (PDF). Reasonable Faith.
  50. ^ "Who is William Lane Craig?". bethinking.org. May 17, 2011. Retrieved .
  51. ^ "Journal Rankings on Philosophy". www.scimagojr.com. Retrieved .
  52. ^ "Search Results". The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. Retrieved .
  53. ^ Craig, William Lane (1994). "Robert Adams's New Anti-Molinist Argument". Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 54 (4): 857-861. doi:10.2307/2108416. ISSN 0031-8205. JSTOR 2108416.
  54. ^ Craig, William Lane (2001). "Wishing It Were Now Some Other Time". Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 62 (1): 159-166. doi:10.2307/2653594. ISSN 0031-8205. JSTOR 2653594.
  55. ^ Craig, William Lane (August 1, 1992). "Hasker on divine knowledge". Philosophical Studies. 67 (2): 89-110. doi:10.1007/BF00373692. ISSN 1573-0883. S2CID 170646419.
  56. ^ Craig, William Lane (December 1, 1991). "Theism and Big Bang cosmology". Australasian Journal of Philosophy. 69 (4): 492-503. doi:10.1080/00048409112344901. ISSN 0004-8402.
  57. ^ Craig, William L. (December 1, 1996). "Timelessness and creation". Australasian Journal of Philosophy. 74 (4): 646-656. doi:10.1080/00048409612347581. ISSN 0004-8402.
  58. ^ Craig, William L. (June 1, 1979). "Wallace matson and the crude cosmological argument". Australasian Journal of Philosophy. 57 (2): 163-170. doi:10.1080/00048407912341171. ISSN 0004-8402.
  59. ^ Craig, W. Lane (March 1, 2001). "McTaggart's Paradox and Temporal Solipsism". Australasian Journal of Philosophy. 79 (1): 32-44. doi:10.1080/713659176. ISSN 0004-8402. S2CID 170081930.
  60. ^ "Search". place.asburyseminary.edu. Retrieved .
  61. ^ Craig, W. L. (May 1, 1994). "Prof. Grünbaum on creation". Erkenntnis. 40 (3): 325-341. doi:10.1007/BF01128902. ISSN 1572-8420. S2CID 55902279.
  62. ^ Craig, William L. (January 1, 1998). "Theism and the Origin of the Universe". Erkenntnis. 48 (1): 49-59. doi:10.1023/A:1005360931186. ISSN 1572-8420. S2CID 170022778.
  63. ^ Craig, William Lane (1997). "Is Presentness a Property?". American Philosophical Quarterly. 34 (1): 27-40. ISSN 0003-0481. JSTOR 20009884.
  64. ^ "Islam Has A Morally Deficient Concept of God: An Exchange Between William Lane Craig & Shabir Ally | Reasonable Faith". www.reasonablefaith.org. Retrieved .
  65. ^ a b c Wainwright 1982, p. 328.
  66. ^ Cowan & Spiegel 2009, pp. 268-269; Jackson 2014, p. 19; Peterson et al. 2013, pp. 86-89; Reichenbach 2017; Williams 2013, p. 89.
  67. ^ "Who's Who: Modern Authors: William Lane Craig (Entry 2)". Philosophy of Religion.info. Retrieved .
  68. ^ a b c d Reichenbach 2019.
  69. ^ Smith 2007, p. 183.
  70. ^ Oppy 2006, p. 137.
  71. ^ Copan 2017, p. 4.
  72. ^ Le Poidevin, Robin (2003). Arguing for Atheism: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. Routledge. ISBN 9781134871117.
  73. ^ a b Wainwright 1982, p. 329.
  74. ^ Moreland & Craig 2003, p. [page needed].
  75. ^ Craig & Sinclair 2009, p. 103.
  76. ^ Wainwright 1982, p. 333.
  77. ^ Craig & Sinclair 2009, p. 117.
  78. ^ Morriston 2000.
  79. ^ Quinn, Philip I. (2003). "God, Existence Of". In van Huyssteen, J Wentzel Vrede (ed.). Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. Thomson-Gale. pp. 381-382. ISBN 9780028657042.
  80. ^ McGrath, Alister E. (2009). Science and Religion: A New Introduction. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781405187909. This form of the kalam argument has been widely debated in recent years. One of its most significant defenders has been William Lane Craig...
  81. ^ Grünbaum, Adolf (1994). "Some Comments on William Craig's "Creation and Big Bang Cosmology"". Philosophia Naturalis. 31 (2): 225-236.
  82. ^ Smith 2007, pp. 192-194.
  83. ^ Morriston 2013.
  84. ^ Morriston 2018.
  85. ^ Oppy 2006, pp. 137-153.
  86. ^ Perzyk 2013, p. 755.
  87. ^ Beyond Dordt and 'De Auxiliis' : the dynamics of Protestant and Catholic soteriology in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Ballor, Jordan J. (Jordan Joseph),, Gaetano, Matthew T., Sytsma, David S. Leiden: Brill. 2019. pp. 103-26, 148-68. ISBN 978-90-04-37711-0. OCLC 1107692846.CS1 maint: others (link)
  88. ^ a b Molinism vs. Calvinism: William Lane Craig & Paul Helm on Unbelievable?, retrieved
  89. ^ Perzyk 2013, p. 755-756.
  90. ^ Perzyk 2013, p. 765.
  91. ^ Craig 1985b.
  92. ^ Habermas, Gary R. (2005). "Resurrection Research From 1975 to the Present: What are Critical Scholars Saying?". Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus. 3 (2): 135-153. doi:10.1177/1476869005058192.
  93. ^ Craig 1989.
  94. ^ Craig 2008, p. 360.
  95. ^ Craig 2001b.
  96. ^ Perman, Matt (September 12, 2007). "Historical Evidence for the Resurrection". Desiring God. Retrieved .
  97. ^ McCullagh, C. Behan (1984). Justifying Historical Descriptions. Cambridge University Press. p. 19.
  98. ^ Craig, William Lane. "Visions of Jesus: A Critical Assessment of Gerd Lüdemann's Hallucination Hypothesis". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved .
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  113. ^ Craig 2012b.
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  121. ^ Zaimov, Stoyan (April 9, 2013). "Christian Apologist Says Church 'Losing Battle' Against Hate Label for Homosexuality Stance". The Christian Post. Retrieved . What you shouldn't be is a confessing Christian and a practicing homosexual.
  122. ^ Craig, William Lane. "A Christian Perspective on Homosexuality". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on 2016-12-06. Retrieved . So how do you find out what God thinks? The Christian says, you look in the Bible. And the Bible tells us that God forbids homosexual acts. Therefore, they are wrong.
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  127. ^ "Evolutionary Creationism and the Image of God in Mankind". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved . Evolutionary creationism is...the view that the current evolutionary paradigm is entirely adequate, so that the evolution of presently observed biological complexity requires no causal input from God. ... I'm not convinced that evolutionary creationism is true. It seems to me that so-called progressive creationism fits the evidence quite nicely. Progressive creationism suggests that God intervenes periodically to bring about miraculously new forms of life and then allows evolutionary change to take place with respect to those life forms.
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  132. ^ Craig, William Lane (August 8, 2011). "The 'Slaughter' of the Canaanites Re-visited". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved .
  133. ^ Morriston 2012.
  134. ^ Morriston 2009.
  135. ^ Moreland & Craig 2003, p. 608.
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  138. ^ Ross, Tim (May 14, 2011). "Richard Dawkins accused of cowardice for refusing to debate existence of God". Telegraph. London. Retrieved .
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