Yaglakar Clan
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Yaglakar Clan
Yaglakar
Old Turkic: ‎, romanized: Ya?laqar

Chinese: ; pinyin: Yàoluógé
Yaglakar clan tamga.png
Tamga of Yaglakar
FounderBezgek Yaglakar Khan (Mythical)
Connected familiesÄdiz clan
Dissolution795

The Yaglakar clan was the first imperial clan of the Uyghur Khaganate. Descendants of the Yaglakar clan would later establish the Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom.

Origin

The clan was named after a mythical founder Yaglakar Khan[1] or Buk Khan ().[2] Initially a part of Tiele Confederation, they carried the hereditary title elteber later as subjects of the Tang dynasty. The first known member of the clan was Tegin Irkin (? *d?k?-nH X-k?n > Tèjiàn Sìj?n).

Chiefs of the clan

Name Chinese original Reign Notes
Tegin Irkin ?/? Lady Wuluohun
Yaoluoge Pusa ?-629 He was allied to Xueyantuo to make against the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.

Defeated Yukuk Shad.[3]

Yaoluoge Tumidu 647-648 Submitted to Tang, was created Commander of Hanhai Area Command[4]
Yaoluoge Wuhe 648 Murdered his uncle Tumidu, was son-in-law of Chebi Qaghan
Yaoluoge Porun 648-662 Created chief by Cui Dunli on the order of Emperor Taizong of Tang
Yaoluoge Bisidu 662-680 Rebelled against Emperor Gaozong of Tang, executed by Qibi Heli
Yaoluoge Dujiezhi 680-695 Son of Bisidu
Yaoluoge Fudifu 695-719 Son of Dujiezhi, was created Vice Military Commissioner of Hexi in 715[5]
Yaoluoge Chengzong 719-727 Son of Fudifu, exiled to Second Turkic Qaghanate
Yaoluoge Fudinan 727 Commander of Hanhai Area Command
Yaoluoge Hushu 727 Killed Jiedushi Wang Junchuo () and wounded Niu Xianke in 727
Yaoluoge Yibiaobi 727-744 Founded Uyghur Khaganate

Khagans

Personal Name Turkic title Chinese title Reign
Yaoluoge Yibiaobi Qutlugh Bilge Köl Qaghan Huairen Khagan (?) 744-747
Yaoluoge Moyanchuo Tengrida Bolmish El Etmish Bilge Qaghan Yingwu Weiyuan Pijia Qaghan () 747-759
Yaoluoge Yidijian Tengrida Qut Bolmish El Tutmish Alp Külüg Bilge Qaghan Yingyi Qaghan (?) 759-780
Yaoluoge Dunmohe Alp Qutlugh Bilge Qaghan Wuyi Chenggong Qaghan ()

Changshou Tianqin Qaghan ()

780-789
Yaoluoge Duoluosi Kulug Bilge Qaghan Zhongzhen Qaghan (?) 789-790
Yaoluoge Achuo Qutluq Bilge Qaghan Fengcheng Qaghan (?) 790-795

By death of Yaoluoge Achuo in 795, the main line of the Yaglakar clan ceased to exist. However, successive khagans adopted the Yaglakar surname for prestige.[6] The rest of the clan members were exiled to the Tang capital Chang'an. An epitaph was recently found in 2010 in Xi'an which belonged to one of the Yaglakar princes, Prince Gechuai (?),[7] younger brother of Yaoluoge Dunmohe[8] who died of cold fever on 11 June 795 and was buried on 28 June 795.

However, another line of the Yaglakar clan came to rule the Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom in 890s.[9]

Ganzhou Uyghur kings

Personal Name Turkic title Chinese title Reign
Yaoluoge Renmei Yingyi Qaghan (?) 911-924
Yaoluoge Aduo/Diyin/Renyu Shunhua Qaghan (?)

Fenghua Qaghan (?)

924-959
Yaoluoge Jingjiong 960-975
Yaoluoge Milie Yaglakar Bilge Qaghan 976-983
Yaoluoge ? Zhongshun Baode Qaghan () 1004-1016
Yaoluoge Guihua Huaining Shunhua Qaghan () 1016-1023
Yaoluoge Tongshun Guizhong Baoshun Qaghan () 1023-1028
Yaoluoge Yasu Baoguo Qaghan (?) 1028-1032

The last member of the clan, Baoguo Qaghan, committed suicide in 1032 after the Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom was annexed by the Western Xia.[10] Yuri Zuev proposed that the Yaglakar clan survived and eventually became Mongolized under the name "Jalairs".[11]

References

  1. ^ Aly?lmaz, Cengiz (2013). "(Kök)Türk Harfli Eski Türk Yaz?tlar?n?n K?rg?zlar Aç?s?ndan Önemi". International Journal of Turkish Literature Culture Education (in Turkish). 2/2 (4): 1-61. doi:10.7884/teke.255.
  2. ^ Theobald, Ulrich. "Huihe , Huihu , Weiwur , Uyghurs (www.chinaknowledge.de)". www.chinaknowledge.de. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2013). Li Shi Min, Founding the Tang Dynasty: The Strategies that Made China the Greatest Empire in Asia. Algora Publishing. ISBN 9780875869803.
  4. ^ Skaff, Jonathan Karam (2012-07-06). Sui-Tang China and Its Turko-Mongol Neighbors: Culture, Power, and Connections, 580-800. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199875900.
  5. ^ Pan, Yihong (1990). "Sui-Tang foreign policy: four case studies". doi:10.14288/1.0098752. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. ^ Moriyasu, Takao (2015). "New Developments in the History of East Uighur Manichaeism". Open Theology. 1 (1). doi:10.1515/opth-2015-0016. ISSN 2300-6579. S2CID 170123859.
  7. ^ Hayashi, Toshio. "EPITAPH OF AN UIGHUR PRINCE FOUND IN XI'AN". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  8. ^ Xin, Luo (2013-06-15). "Kar? Çor Tigin Yaz?t?n?n Çincesi ve Kar? Çor Tigin'in ?eceresi". Uluslararas? Türkçe Edebiyat Kültür E?itim (TEKE) Dergisi (in Turkish). 2/2 (2). doi:10.7884/teke.187. ISSN 2147-0146.
  9. ^ Studies, Joint Centre for Asia Pacific (1996). Cultural contact, history and ethnicity in inner Asia: papers presented at the Central and Inner Asian Seminar, University of Toronto, March 4, 1994 and March 3, 1995. Joint Centre for Asia Pacific Studies. p. 125. ISBN 9781895296228.
  10. ^ Cheng Suluo: "A Study of the Khaganal Genealogy of Ganzhou Kingdom", "On the History of the Tang and Song Dynasties" (Beijing: People's Publishing House, 1994), pp. 140-149. (in Chinese)
  11. ^ Zuev, Yu A. (2002). Early Turks: Essays on history and ideology. Oriental Studies Institute, Almaty: Daik-Press. pp. 104-105.

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