Zhuhai
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Zhuhai

Zhuhai
Chuhai
Clockwise from top: the Gongbei Port of Entry and Portas do Cerco at the border of Zhuhai and Macau, Jintai Temple, Hengqin New Area, statue of Fisher Girl, and Deyuefang Restaurant on Yeli Dao
Clockwise from top: the Gongbei Port of Entry and Portas do Cerco at the border of Zhuhai and Macau, Jintai Temple, Hengqin New Area, statue of Fisher Girl, and Deyuefang Restaurant on Yeli Dao
Nickname(s): 
City of Romance (?); City of hundred islands (?)
Location of Zhuhai in Guangdong
Location of Zhuhai in Guangdong
Zhuhai is located in China
Zhuhai
Zhuhai
Location in China
Coordinates: 22°16?18?N 113°34?37?E / 22.2716°N 113.5769°E / 22.2716; 113.5769Coordinates: 22°16?18?N 113°34?37?E / 22.2716°N 113.5769°E / 22.2716; 113.5769
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceGuangdong
Municipal seatXiangzhou District
Government
 o CCP Committee SecretaryGuo Yonghang [zh] ()
 o MayorYao Yisheng [zh] ()
Area
 o Prefecture-level city1,724.32 km2 (665.76 sq mi)
 o Water690 km2 (270 sq mi)
 o Urban
1,724.32 km2 (665.76 sq mi)
 o Metro
19,870.4 km2 (7,672.0 sq mi)
Elevation
36 m (118 ft)
Population
(2020 census[1])
 o Prefecture-level city2,439,585
 o Density1,400/km2 (3,700/sq mi)
 o Urban
2,439,585
 o Urban density1,400/km2 (3,700/sq mi)
 o Metro
65,565,622
 o Metro density3,300/km2 (8,500/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard Time)
Postal code
519000
Area code(s)0756
ISO 3166 codeCN-GD-04
License plate prefixes?C
- TotalCNY 222.63 billion (2015)[2]
- Per capitaCNY 134,500
USD 20,200 (2015) [2]
Websitezhuhai.gov.cn (in Chinese)
Zhuhai
Zhuhai name (2).svg
"Zhuhai" in Chinese
Chinese
Cantonese YaleJy?-hói
PostalChuhai
Literal meaning"Pearl Sea"

Zhuhai (,[3] Chinese: ; pinyin: Zh?h?i; Yale: Jy?hói), also known as Chuhai is a prefecture-level city located on the west bank of Pearl River estuary on the central coast of southern Guangdong province, People's Republic of China, on the southeastern edge of Pearl River Delta. Its name literally means "pearl sea", which originates from the city's location at the mouth of the Pearl River meeting the South China Sea. Zhuhai borders Jiangmen to the west, Zhongshan to the north and Macau to the southeast, and shares maritime boundaries with Shenzhen and Hong Kong to the northeast across the estuary.

Zhuhai was one of the original four Special Economic Zones established in 1980, as well as one of China's premier tourist destinations, being called the Chinese Riviera. While the city is located in the traditionally Cantonese-speaking province of Guangdong, a significant portion of the population is now made up of Mandarin-speaking economic migrants originally from inland provinces.

The core of Zhuhai, Xiangzhou District along with Macao, in the northeastern portion of the administrative division, are part of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area, the biggest built-up area in the world with more than 65,565,622 inhabitants as of the 2020 census, encompassing Shenzhen, Dongguan, Foshan, Zhongshan, Macau, the main part of Guangzhou, and small parts of Jiangmen and Huizhou cities but with Hong Kong not quite conurbated yet.

According to a report released in 2014 by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Zhuhai is the most livable city in China.[4]

Geography

Zhuhai borders the Macau Special Administrative Region (north and west), and is 140 kilometres (87 miles) southwest of Guangzhou. Its territory has 690 kilometres (429 miles) of coastline and 217 islands, of which 147 are over 500 square metres in area.[5]

The islands within the prefecture-level city of Zhuhai include a number of near-shore islands, often connected to the mainland by bridges or causeways (such as Hengqin, Qi'ao, or Yeli Islands), as well as some islands in the open South China Sea (the Wanshan Archipelago). Some of the latter are actually geographically closer to Hong Kong than to the Zhuhai mainland. The jurisdiction of Nei Lingding Island, located in the Pearl River estuary was transferred from Zhuhai to Shenzhen in 2009.[6]

Climate

Despite being located within the tropics, Zhuhai has a humid subtropical climate affected by the East Asian Monsoon (Koppen classification Cwa) and moderated by the South China Sea, with long, hot and humid summers with frequent thunderstorms, and short, mild and dry winters. Average highs in January and July are 18 and 32 °C (64 and 90 °F) respectively. Snowfalls are unknown and a frost has never been recorded in the city centre. Conversely, extreme heat waves do not occur as they do further inland. Being named one of the most liveable cities in China, real estate is robust here. Residents from the mainland, especially those from the North, will buy homes and spend their winters in Zhuhai.

Climate data for Zhuhai (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27.8
(82.0)
28.8
(83.8)
30.5
(86.9)
33.2
(91.8)
35.3
(95.5)
36.8
(98.2)
38.7
(101.7)
37.3
(99.1)
36.3
(97.3)
34.8
(94.6)
32.9
(91.2)
29.1
(84.4)
38.7
(101.7)
Average high °C (°F) 18.6
(65.5)
18.9
(66.0)
21.5
(70.7)
25.4
(77.7)
28.9
(84.0)
30.8
(87.4)
32.0
(89.6)
31.9
(89.4)
30.6
(87.1)
28.4
(83.1)
24.4
(75.9)
20.2
(68.4)
26.0
(78.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 15.1
(59.2)
15.8
(60.4)
18.4
(65.1)
22.3
(72.1)
25.7
(78.3)
27.7
(81.9)
28.5
(83.3)
28.3
(82.9)
27.3
(81.1)
25.0
(77.0)
21.0
(69.8)
16.6
(61.9)
22.6
(72.8)
Average low °C (°F) 12.6
(54.7)
13.7
(56.7)
16.3
(61.3)
20.4
(68.7)
23.5
(74.3)
25.5
(77.9)
25.9
(78.6)
25.8
(78.4)
24.8
(76.6)
22.5
(72.5)
18.4
(65.1)
13.9
(57.0)
20.3
(68.5)
Record low °C (°F) 1.6
(34.9)
3.0
(37.4)
2.7
(36.9)
9.4
(48.9)
14.8
(58.6)
18.6
(65.5)
20.9
(69.6)
20.9
(69.6)
17.4
(63.3)
10.5
(50.9)
5.2
(41.4)
2.2
(36.0)
1.6
(34.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 27.0
(1.06)
57.0
(2.24)
83.1
(3.27)
197.7
(7.78)
298.3
(11.74)
347.1
(13.67)
278.6
(10.97)
337.4
(13.28)
223.2
(8.79)
75.1
(2.96)
43.8
(1.72)
31.0
(1.22)
1,999.3
(78.71)
Average relative humidity (%) 74 81 85 86 85 85 83 84 80 74 71 69 80
Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center

Economy

Zhuhai became a city in 1979, a year before it was designated as one of the first Special Economic Zones of China (SEZ). Similarly to neighboring Shenzhen, which became the first Special Economic Zone of China in 1978, the implementation of Zhuhai as an SEZ was largely due to its strategic position adjacent to Macau, a capitalist trading center similar to Shenzhen's position with Hong Kong.

The establishment of Zhuhai as an SEZ allowed the Chinese Central Government and economy to have easier access to the Macau and consequently, global market. As a result, Zhuhai is now a major city in the Pearl River Delta region according to the new general urban plan approved by the State Council. The implementation of Special Economy Zone intended for the city to become a key port city, science and education city, scenic and tourism city, and as a regional hub for transportation.

The outstanding geographic location, a wide range of supporting infrastructure and a deep-water port serve as a major attraction for foreign capital. Utilized foreign investment reached US$10.344 billion in 2008. Among the top 500 enterprises worldwide, 19 of them have investment projects in Zhuhai such as ExxonMobil, BP, Siemens, Carrefour and Matsushita. Hong Kong is the largest overseas investor in Zhuhai, accounting for 22% of total utilized foreign investment in 2002.

Manufacturing industries

Industrial development in Zhuhai focuses on five new high-tech and heavy industries including electronics, computer software, biotechnology and pharmacy, machinery and equipment as well as petrochemical industries. Aiming to strengthen the existing industrial base as well as to provide a better environment for the development of new high-tech industries, the local government has taken the initiative in developing five economic zones:

  • Zhuhai High-Tech Industrial Development Zone

As one of the four earliest Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in China, Zhuhai SEZ was set up in the year 1980 and granted with a local legislative right. Zhuhai hi-tech zone is located in the north of Zhuhai, which is very close to downtown. Furthermore, technological resources are centralized in our zone; there is also a huge development in hi-tech industries led by the software and IC industries. The hi-tech zone is the showcase for Zhuhai's scientific development.[7] Meizu is one high tech product headquartered in Zhuhai.

  • Zhuhai Free Trade Zone[8]

Zhuhai Free Trade Zone (Zhuhai FTZ) was founded in 1996 with the State Council's approval, occupying 3 km2 (1.2 sq mi). A Zhuhai FTZ Administrative Committee was set up in June 1997. By the end of 2006, there had been over 200 companies registered in the Free Trade Zone, including more than 150 foreign-funded enterprises, and the total investment amount was one billion US dollars. Industries encouraged in the zone include electronics assembly & manufacturing, telecommunications equipment, building/construction materials, instruments & industrial equipment production, medical equipment and supplies, raw material processing, research & development, shipping/warehousing/logistics, and heavy industry.[9]

  • Harbour industrial zone (provincial level)
  • Wanshan ocean development testing zone (provincial level)

The Wanshan archipelago is located in one of the major fishing areas of China and is core to the Wanshan ocean development testing zone. However, Perna viridis, a species of green mussel, was found to be contaminated by HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs.[10][11]

  • Hengqin economic development zone (provincial level)[12]
  • Global printer consumables manufacturing centre

Zhuhai manufactured and supplied 70% of the world's ribbons, 60% of the world's aftermarket inkjet cartridges and 20% of the world's third-party laser toner cartridges. Their combined sales were worth more than 1.3 billion US dollars or 10% of all the sales in the world. Zhuhai owns a comprehensive supply chain and almost any of the raw materials needed by the printer consumables industry can be provided locally.

Administration

The prefecture-level city of Zhuhai administers three county-level divisions and four special economic districts, all of which are districts.

Administrative divisions of Zhuhai
Division code[13] English name Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[14] Population 2010[15] Seat Postal code Divisions[16]
Subdistricts Towns Residential communities Administrative villages
440400 Zhuhai City Zh?h?i Shì 1724.32 1,562,530 Xiangzhou District 519000 10 15 189 122
440402 Xiangzhou District * Xi?ngzh?u Q? 550.84 892,685 Meihua Subdistrict 519000 9 6 141 7
440403 Doumen District D?umén Q? 613.88 415,882 Jing'an Town 519100 1 5 23 101
440404 Jinwan District * J?nw?n Q? 559.60 253,963 Hongqi Town 519100 4 25 14
  Hengqin New Area ? Héngqín X?nq? 106.46 Hengqin Town 519030
  Wanshan Marine
Development Experimental Zone
Wànsh?n H?iyáng K?if? Shìyànq? 80.00 Wanshan Town 519000
  Zhuhai National Hi-Tech
Industrial Development District
? Zh?h?i Guóji? G?ox?n Jìshù Ch?nyè K?if?q? 130.00 Tangjiawan Town 519080
  Zhuhai Gaolanggang
Port Economic Zone
Zh?h?i J?ngjì Jìshù K?if?q? 380.00 Nanshui Town 519050
* -- The stats includes the subordinated zones.
All zones are management areas; not administrative divisions registered under the Ministry of Civil Affairs.
* - Hengqin New Area, Wanshan Marine Zone, and Hi-Tech Industrial Development District are subordinate to Xiangzhou
* - Port Economic Zone are subordinate to Jinwan
Jida panorama from Shijing mountain ()

Transportation

Gongbei Port
Zhuhai Railway Station

Airports

  • Zhuhai Jinwan Airport (IATA: ZUH, ICAO: ZGSD), formerly Zhuhai Sanzao Airport, an international airport connecting all provincial cities in Mainland China (except Xining and Lhasa) and many other major cities, hosting an annual air show and an exhibition hall, with Chinese space rockets located in Jinwan District.
  • Jiuzhou Airport [zh] (), verbally "Jiuzhou Heliport()")[17] (ICAO: ZGUH), is located in Xiangzhou district, near the Jiuzhou harbour, and has short plane runway and a helipad. Its place inside Jiuzhou inner district, permits quick transport of injured people from surrounding islands to the city hospitals. China Southern Airlines offer sightseeing flights and charters to drilling stations in South China Sea using Sikorsky S-76 helicopters via this airport as well. They used to fly to Guangzhou Baiyun Airport from this airport using Cessna C208 Caravan as well, but the route was discontinued.

Zhuhai also is served by airports outside:

Zhuhai residents may also use Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport (IATA: SZX, ICAO: ZGSZ) and travel there by bus or ferry.[20]

Railway

Zhuhai Railway Station is located at the western end of Gongbei Port of Entry and Portas do Cerco at the border of Zhuhai and Macau. There are frequent high speed trains to Guangzhou, Guilin, Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu and other main cities in China. The intercity railway between Zhuhai Gongbei and Zhuhai Jinwan International Airport is under construction. It is expected to be opened to Hengqin in November 2019, and the whole project will be completed in 2024. It will take only 30 minutes to commute from urban district to the airport using the completed line.

Zhuhai also has a tram network, with the first phase of Line 1 completed in 2014. In 2017, Line 1 began service to the public. The trams ceased running in January 2021 due to frequent power issues and low patronage.

The Zhuhai Metro (?) is currently in the planning stage. Line 1 will start from Jiuzhou Port and end at the Jinwan Station, with a total length of 36.8 km; Line 2 will start from Jinding Industrial Area and end at Gongbei Port, with a total length of 30.5 km. Construction was expected to start in 2019, with an estimated time of completion in 2024.[]

Sea

Zhuhai is known for its good climate and good air quality. Endowed with a long coastline, it is the only city on the western Pearl River Delta with natural deep-water ports.[]

Zhuhai has two international seaports: Jiuzhou () and Gaolan (). Gaolan Port is one of the leading ports in Guangdong province, while Jiuzhou Port focuses on heavy passenger sea transport.[]

Chu Kong Passenger Transport operates a ferry service between Zhuhai's Jiuzhou Port, Hong Kong and Shekou Passenger Terminal, in the Nanshan District of Shenzhen. A service between Jiuzhou Port and Hong Kong International Airport for air passengers using the airport began on 10 July 2007.[21]

Road

Zhuhai is currently served by two major Chinese national expressways:

China Expwy G94 sign with name.svg G94 Pearl River Delta Ring Expressway

  • The G94 Pearl River Delta Ring Expressway, which will form a beltway surrounding the Guangzhou metropolitan area when completed, currently connects Zhuhai to the Sanshui District of Foshan. In 2018 the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge opened, reducing the travel time by road from Zhuhai to Hong Kong in approximately 40 minutes. G94 was extended to follow this bridge, with sections currently under construction connecting the bridge to the Zhuhai-Foshan section.

China Expwy G0425 sign with name.svg G0425 Guangzhou-Macau Expressway

  • A spur route of the mainline G4 Beijing-Hong Kong and Macau Expressway, G0425 directly links Guangzhou to Zhuhai (and thus, Macau). It has a concurrency with G94 for several kilometers. Heavy traffic between Zhuhai and Macau has led to the construction of a new cross-border corridor, the Lotus Bridge, built in November 1999 to divert traffic away from the congested Gongbei Port of Entry (Portas do Cerco). G0425 currently ends in Zhuhai at Zhuhai Avenue, pending an extension to the Lotus Bridge via Hengqin island.

Tourism

Xiangzhou fishing harbor, with the forested Yeli Island in the horizon

Zhuhai and the surrounding landscapes have a reputation within China of being a garden city with a high quality of life. In 2002, the city attracted 1.3 million international tourists and 3.64 million domestic tourists. Following Guangzhou and Shenzhen, Zhuhai has the third largest amount of foreign tourism in the Guangdong province.[when?][]

Zhuhai hosts the China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition biannually in November. It is the largest Air Show in China and a huge tourist attraction.

Realizing the benefits brought by tourism, the local government is expanding tourist destinations and is developing new spots such as Hengqin (), Dong'ao (), Hebao (), Qi'ao () and Yeli ().

New Yuan Ming Palace

The New Yuan Ming Palace (simplified Chinese: ?; traditional Chinese: ?) is a park of 1.39 square kilometres (0.54 square miles), including an 80,000 m2 (861,113 sq ft) lake. It features a partial reconstruction of the Old Summer Palace in Beijing which was destroyed during the Second Opium War and was never rebuilt on its original site.[22]

Coast of Xianglu Bay--Fisher Girl Statue

The coast of Xianglu Bay is considered the "symbol" of Zhuhai, offering a scenic view of Pearl River Delta with silt-rich water, rocks, and a beach. The famous landmark of the city, the Fisher Girl Statue, stands elegantly on a boulder in Xianglu Bay; the statue is draped by a fishnet and holds a pearl high in the air with both hands up to the sky, symbolizing a vigorous and lively Zhuhai welcoming visitors from all over the world. It was erected in 1982 by a professor from the Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts and is 8.7 meters tall, composed of 70 pieces of granite. Visitors can view the statue up close from a boardwalk on the shore.[23][24]

Fisher Girl statue in Xianglu Bay

The statue was based on a local legend, in which the daughter of the celestial Dragon King visited the Pearl River delta. Enamored by the beauty of the Zhuhai region, she disguised herself as a fisher girl and lived among the people there, weaving baskets and healing locals with her powers until she fell in love with a fellow fisherman named Haipeng. The romance between Haipeng and the fisher girl was interrupted by vicious rumors among the people about the latter's true origins. Haipeng eventually confronted the fisher girl about this and demanded she give her magical pearl bracelets to him as proof of her love. She confirmed the rumors and explained that if she removed even one of the pearls, she would die. As Haipeng refused to believe her story and turned to leave, the fisher girl took off her bracelets, dying in Haipeng's arms. Heartbroken and guilt-ridden, Haipeng set out to find a cure, eventually discovering from a local elder that he would need to cultivate a special grass with his own blood. After years of toiling, Haipeng finally harvested enough to revive the fisher girl, turning her into a mortal. The two later married and the fisher girl found a large pearl, which she gifted to the elder in gratitude on the day of the wedding.[25]

Education

Strategic development

Developing a university park is part of Zhuhai's strategy to strengthen its high-tech and IT industries. Compared with Beijing and Shanghai, Zhuhai and other cities in Guangdong province face a serious shortage of talent and professionals. The local government is taking significant initiatives to set up a university park with an area of 20 square kilometres (8 square miles) (the only such plan in the western Pearl River Delta).

Colleges and universities

A number of other colleges and universities are also located in or near Zhuhai. Beijing Normal University Zhuhai Campus was created as a new model university. Besides its high quality of education, it is more internationally oriented than many universities in China. Many students here prepare to go abroad to finish their junior and senior years.

Primary and secondary education

Despite the shortage of higher education, Zhuhai government has been paying a lot of attention to primary and secondary education. From 2007, high school students in Zhuhai needn't pay school fees anymore.[26]

As a result, there are many famous high schools in Zhuhai. Zhuhai No.1 High School (ZH1Z) is one of the most competitive high schools in Guangdong Province, and also a member of the Guangdong "Six Schools Union".

Dulwich International High School Zhuhai, QSI International School of Zhuhai, and Zhuhai International School serve expatriates and/or use foreign educational systems.

Supplementary schools

Zhuhai Japanese Saturday School () is a supplementary school for overseas Japanese in Zhuhai.[27] It holds classes at QSI School.[28]

Sports facilities

Zhuhai is the first city in China to have constructed a motor racing circuit. The Zhuhai International Circuit was built in 1996 and is located at Jinding, near the border to Zhongshan. ZIC has held the BPR Global GT Endurance Series in 1996, the FIA GT Championship in 1997, 1999, 2004 and 2005. It hosted the championship's 2007 opening round on 24 and 25 March. ZIC had planned to host a round of the Champ Car World Series on 20 May 2007, but agreement was not reached. ZIC held an A1GP race in 2007 for the first time in series' history. ZIC became the first venue in China to host the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup on 7 November 2010 when the 2010 1000 km of Zhuhai was staged.

Zhuhai has also a new tennis center which hosts WTA Elite Trophy, the last tournament of the year for players that are in the top 20 but did not qualify to WTA Finals.

Notable people

Notable people

Mayors and CPC Committee Secretaries

Mayors

[29][30][31][32]

Names In office Life-death
Wu Jianmin January 1979 - June 1984 1921-2015
Liang Guangda June 1984 - October 1995 1935-
Huang Longyun October 1995 - October 2000 1951-
Fang Xuan October 2000 - August 2002 1954-
Wang Shunsheng August 2002 - January 2007 1949-
Zhong Shijian January 2007 - October 2011 1956-
He Ningka October 2011 - January 2015 1959-
Jiang Ling January 2015 - January 2016 1964-
Vacant January 2016 - May 2016 N/A
Zheng Renhao April 2016 - March 2017[a] 1968-
Li Zezhong March 2017 - September 2017 1970-
Yao Yisheng September 2017 - 1965-

CPC Committee Secretaries

[29]

Names In office Life-death
Wu Jianmin January 1979 - February 1984 1921-2015
Fang Bao February 1984 - January 1987 1931-
Liang Guangda January 1987 - September 1998 1935-
Huang Longyun October 1998 - August 2002 1951-
Fang Xuan August 2002 - August 2005 1954-
Deng Weilong August 2005 - March 2008 1950-
Gan Lin March 2008 - February 2012 1963-
Li Jia February 2012 - March 2016 1964-
Guo Yuanqiang March 2016 - January 2018 1965-
Guo Yonghang February 2018[b] - 1965-

Sister cities

See Sister cities of Zhuhai

See also

Notes

  1. ^ As mayor nominee during April 2016 - May 2016
  2. ^ As CPC Secretary nominee during February 2018 - April 2018

References

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